E-Governance: Tool for E-Democracy and Citizen Empowerment in the Horizon of Information Technology Era in Developing Society in India, Nepal and Bangladesh

E-Governance: Tool for E-Democracy and Citizen Empowerment in the Horizon of Information Technology Era in Developing Society in India, Nepal and Bangladesh

Subhajit Choudhury (Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India) and Sudhir Kumar (Vikram University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-713-3.ch007
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Abstract

The chapter introduces information communication technology and its importance with respect to digital divide. Digital divides is the connotation of three terms global divide, social divide, democratic divide. Further, it discusses the role of United Nations and United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals for bridging digital divide amongst the under develop and developing nations. It also relates e-democracy with citizen empowerment. Some projects related to e-governance in developing society in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh have been discussed. The Library and Information Centres have been given utmost priority to maintain the e-governance projects so that these projects can better be maintained with proper information and become more citizen-centric.
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Introduction

Science and technology have undergone revolutionary changes in past century. Only a few decades ago, all telecommunications services were delivered over copper wires. More recently, the world has witnessed the exponential growth of mobile telephony and the widespread commercial deployment of the Internet. Today, the dazzling array of new technologies, services and applications has led to a digital age of information communications technology (ICT) in which access has become a key component of peoples’ lives. These changes hold so much promise. The convergence of technologies, its rapid rate of change and its importance in the development of the economic, social, financial and educational sectors, is opening new opportunities from e-commerce & e-governance to Tele-education and Tele-medicine.

The alarming rate of development of ICT the world is being changed into information oriented. The country which is rich in information is regarded as rich in every aspect. Information communication technologies (ICT) can eliminate many of the obstacles of time and space and help overcome gaps in regional development. However the arrangement of advantages brought by ICT is uneven, and this is what gives rise to the phenomenon of a “digital divide”.

The concept of the digital divide grows more complex as the phrase becomes shorthand for every conceivable disparity relating to online access. The multi-dimensionality of the concept has been framed by Norris (2000) into three distinct aspects:

  • a.

    Global divide: Divergence of Internet access between industrialized and developing countries;

  • b.

    Social divide: Gap between information rich and information poor in each nation; and,

  • c.

    Democratic divide: Difference between those who do and those who do not use the new technologies to further political participation (Norris, 2000).

The worry internationally is that a widening digital divide between countries could lead to a widening economic divide. In fact, the economic considerations driving the concerns about the digital divide underlie most of the concerns within a country as well as between countries. As economists have observed, however, we are in such early stages of the communications revolution that evidence on the question of the economic impact of differences in connectivity worldwide is very inconclusive.

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International Telecommunication Union, Wsis And United Nations And E-Democracy

International Telecommunication Union is the only international organization whose primary focus is communications. Telecommunication operators make up ITU’s core constituency. While today’s economy has witnessed a boom in Internet start-up companies—many of which have joined ITU—traditional telecommunication operators remain the world’s most important Internet backbone providers and Internet Service Providers. ITU has a unique opportunity to work with these key Internet players. Moreover, one of the main purposes of ITU is to promote the extension of the benefits of the new ICTs to all the world’s inhabitants. ITU is mandated to foster and offer technical assistance to developing countries and to promote the mobilisation of the material, human and financial resources needed to implement these goals. Some of the countries that have become today’s leading global telecommunications players—Malaysia, Korea and Singapore—were beneficiaries of ITU technical co-operation programmes. ITU’s mandate further includes promoting international co-operation and partnerships between government Members and the growing number of private sector members who have joined ITU. ITU Electronic Commerce for Developing Countries (EC-DC) programme, is a shining example of the benefits such partnerships bring to the world’s poorest economies. ITU has been playing a leadership role in bridging the digital divide under the four-year strategic Valletta Action Plan (VAP) adopted by the ITU World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC) in 1998. VAP is a six-point action plan that address the key elements needed to bridge the digital divide: sector reform, access to new technologies, gender issues, rural development and universal service/access, finance and economics, partnerships with the private sector and human resource development. VAP also includes a special programme to take into consideration the needs of Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Marijn Janssen
Preface
Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Acknowledgment
Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Chapter 1
Bharat Maheshwari, Vinod Kumar, Uma Kumar, Vedmani Sharan
Electronic government (E-government) portals are considered one of the most popular conduits for offering government services online. Successful... Sample PDF
A Framework for E-Government Portal Development
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Chapter 2
Petter Gottschalk
The mobilization of electronic information across government organizations has the potential of modernizing and transforming information exchanges.... Sample PDF
E-Government Interoperability: Frameworks for Aligned Development
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Chapter 3
Mahfuz Ashraf, Jo Hanisch, Paul Swatman
While there is hope that ICT interventions will lead to socio-economic development in developing countries, there is a dearth of research concerning... Sample PDF
An Explorative Study of Dynamic Influences on ICT-Led Developmental Impact at Community Level
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Chapter 4
Marc Holzer, Aroon Manoharan
The chapter is based on a study of global municipal Web portals conducted through a collaboration between the E-Governance Institute at... Sample PDF
Tracking the Digital Divide: Studying the Association of the Global Digital Divide with Societal Divide
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Chapter 5
Charru Malhotra, V.M. Chariar, L.K. Das
The speed and outreach enabled by information and communication technologies (ICT) have improved mechanisms of delivery of information, services and... Sample PDF
Making ICT more Meaningful for Governance in the Rural Areas: Role of the Community Knowledge Systems
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Chapter 6
Sandeep Kaur, N. Mathiyalagan
ICTs in general and e-governance in particular offer tremendous opportunities for improving demand-driven transparent and accountable service... Sample PDF
Impact of E-Government Implementation on Poverty Reduction in Rural India: Selected Case Studies
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Chapter 7
Subhajit Choudhury, Sudhir Kumar
The chapter introduces information communication technology and its importance with respect to digital divide. Digital divides is the connotation of... Sample PDF
E-Governance: Tool for E-Democracy and Citizen Empowerment in the Horizon of Information Technology Era in Developing Society in India, Nepal and Bangladesh
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Chapter 8
Siddhartha Ghosh
E-governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim of improving information and service... Sample PDF
Application of Natural Language Processing (NLP) Techniques in E–Governance
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Chapter 9
Anand Agrawal
A primary goal of e-governance is providing online-services to citizens over the internet (Web portals) to facilitate government-to-citizen (G2C)... Sample PDF
Assessing E-Governance Online-Service Quality (EGOSQ)
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Chapter 10
Sundresan Perumal
As the world is streaming into an electronic world there are still huge communities that don’t understand the evolution government into the era of... Sample PDF
The Success Model of Evolution from Government to E-Governance
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Chapter 11
Shafi Al-Shafi, Vishanth Weerakkody
This chapter examines the adoption of free wireless internet parks (iPark) by Qatari citizens as means of accessing electronic services from public... Sample PDF
Technology Acceptance of Free Wireless Internet Park Initiatives
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Chapter 12
Yogesh K. Dwivedi
The main purpose of this chapter is to provide readers an exhaustive list of references focused upon electronic government related issues.The... Sample PDF
A Bibliometric Analysis of Electronic Government Research
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Chapter 13
C.S.R. Prabhu
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) proposes citizen service delivery up to the village level through various channels including village kiosks.... Sample PDF
Towards an E-Governance Grid for India (E-GGI): An Architectural Framework for Citizen Services Delivery
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Chapter 14
Swamy Tribhuvananda H.V., Gopakumar K.
ICTs are increasingly being recognized by the people across the globe as essential tools of development – tools that can empower them, enhance... Sample PDF
E-Halli: An Opportunity to Become Rural Entrepreneurs
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Chapter 15
Moaman Al-Busaidy, Vishanth Weerakkody
With the advancement of the Internet and supporting information and communication technologies, e-government has emerged as an effective means of... Sample PDF
E-Government Implementation in Oman: A Preliminary Investigation
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Chapter 16
Vineeta Dixit
Information communications technologies (ICTs) are one of the major areas of research and investment in developing countries because they seem to... Sample PDF
Telecentres: The New Public Spheres?
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About the Contributors