Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services

Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services

Fotis C. Kitsios (Technical University of Crete, Greece), Spyros P. Angelopoulos (Technical University of Crete, Greece) and John Zannetopoulos (Hellenic Ministry of the Interior, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-108-7.ch018
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Abstract

There is no doubt that e-government is a phenomenon of our era. E-business is becoming vital on the private sector as well as in the governmental institutions. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in order to change the structures and processes of government organizations in an attempt to allow the exchange of information with citizens, businesses and other arms of government, results to improved efficiency, convenience as well as better accessibility of public services. The three segments of e-government services are Governmentto- Citizen (G2C), Government-to-Business (G2B) and Government-to-Government (G2G) in a correspondence to the business model segments. As many others aspects of science in their very beginning, e-government suffers from a definitional vagueness of its concept due to the fact that there is not a widely accepted definition among researchers. So, what exactly is e-government? Has anyone tried or managed to define its exact concept and meaning? Is it just an Internet-based government or are there any other non-internet technologies used in this context? How can next-generation heterogeneous networks, enhance its abilities on interconnectivity? These are all questions seeking for an answer in this paper. This study does not try to stand out either as a review or as a synthetic summary of the literature concerning e-government, rather, its main objective will be an in depth overview of the current status of e-government phenomenon. Future works need to give an answer to the dilemma whether e-government is really a tool for decentralization and democratization or the result of a sociotechnical process towards a new model of public administration. Finally, in an attempt to focus on the changes in business process that are needed inside governmental institutions in order e-government to be successfully implemented, a second recommendation for future work resides on the need for a holistic model which can embrace the back-office, the front-office as well as the real citizens’ needs.
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Introduction

It is a common knowledge that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) contribute substantially to the acceleration of financial development and the elimination of poverty. This can be achieved by initially providing and continuously improving health and education. This, however, can only be implemented through the sharing of information and communication technology resources across governments and their citizens. Ample and uninhibited access to new technologies is essential for uniform and consistent diffusion of innovation.

The use of internet capabilities by governments all around the world has increased significantly over the last years. Among all the constituencies that are affected by the development of electronic government, businesses represent one constituency that may experience significant benefits (Thompson, Rust & Rhoda, 2005). Electronic government projects have a breadth of impact that extends far beyond the agency concerned and where benefits often expand beyond the agency owning the aforementioned project.

As many others aspects of science in their very beginning, e-government suffers from a definitional vagueness of its concept due to the fact that there is not a widely accepted definition among researchers. So, what exactly is e-government? Has anyone tried or managed to define its exact concept and meaning? Is it just an Internet-based government or are there any other non-internet technologies used in this context? How can next-generation heterogeneous networks, enhance its abilities on interconnectivity? These are all questions seeking for an answer in this study. However, this study does not try to stand out either as a review or as a synthetic summary of the literature concerning e-government, rather, its main objective will be an in depth overview of the current status of e-government phenomenon.

The rapidly changing business environment of the last years has created uncertainty in the market place and high risk for future decisions in the years to come. In order to survive in this demanding market place, service organizations have only one choice, to successfully develop new services. However the failure rate for new services projects is high, because the knowledge about how new services should be developed is limited (Kitsios, 2005). The success rate of new service projects is an average 58% (Griffin, 1997). In other words, four out of ten new service projects fail in the market place.

It is often argued that e-government research suffers from definitional vagueness of the e-government concept, oversimplification of the e-government development process within manifold institutional and political environments as well as various methodological limitations. In order to confront and resolve these issues, this study reviews the barriers in the e-government literature, and it suggests ways forward. In order to achieve these, this study provides an analysis of the development as well as various definitions of the e-government concept. After discussing the barriers of the concept, methodological and conceptual rectifications such as better studying and explaining the processes of e-government projects within complex political environments, addressing the problem of under-specification in the e-government literature by the production of more grounded, empirical studies that would create new theoretical arguments and provide new concepts and categories so as to enhance our understanding of e-government policy processes and actors, as well as attaching the subject of e-government strongly to mainstream public administration research are suggested in the final part of the analysis.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Computer Network: An interconnected group of computers. Networks may be classified by the network layer at which they operate according to basic reference models considered as standards in the industry. The majority of networks use the Internet Protocol Suite.

E-Government: The use of internet technology as a platform for exchanging information, providing services and transacting with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

Internet: A worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol.

ICT (Information Communications Technology): An umbrella term that includes all technologies for the communication of information. It is apparently culminating to information communication with the help of personal computers networked through the Internet through information technology that can transfer information using satellite systems or intercontinental cables.

Web Portal: A site that provides a single function via a Web page or site. Web portals often function as a point of access to information on the World Wide Web. Portals present information from diverse sources in a unified way.

Framework: A basic conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues.

QoS (quality of service): A defined measure of performance in a data communications system.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Robert A. Walker, Drew Parker
Preface
Stavros Kotsopoulos, Konstantinos Ioannou
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Dzmitry Kliazovich, Michael Devetsikiotis, Fabrizio Granelli
The layering principle has been long identified as a way to increase the interoperability and to improve the design of telecommunication protocols... Sample PDF
Formal Methods in Cross Layer Modeling and Optimization of Wireless Networks: State of the Art and Future Directions
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Chapter 2
Dimitris Toumpakaris, Jungwon Lee
This chapter presents an introduction to cross-layer scheduling and resource allocation for wireless systems and an overview of some of the... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems
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Chapter 3
Prashant Pillai
IP multicast mechanisms provide efficient bandwidth consumption and distribution of high volume contents such as audio/video streaming... Sample PDF
An AAA Framework for IP Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks
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Chapter 4
N. Merlemis, D. Zevgolis
This chapter is an introduction of the Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies (such as Dense WDM and coarse WDM) and their recent... Sample PDF
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technologies and their Applications
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Chapter 5
Sotiris Karabetsos, Spiros Mikroulis, Athanase Nassiopoulos
The high capacity offered by the optical fiber, combined with the mobility and the flexibility of wireless access, either fixed or not, provides an... Sample PDF
Radio over Fiber for Broadband Communications: A Promising Technology for Next Generation Networks
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Chapter 6
Konstantinos Birkos
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs) have gained much of attention from the scientific society and the communication industry in the recent... Sample PDF
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs)
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Chapter 7
Dimitrios K. Lymberopoulos
The Next Generation Network (NGN) is a very complex environment, where various parties (network operators, services and application providers... Sample PDF
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Chapter 8
Konstantinos S. Kotsopoulos
Next Generation Networks (NGNs) will accommodate heterogeneous architectures that need to be managed in order to provide services with high QoS to... Sample PDF
The Adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in Managing Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
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Chapter 9
Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Georgios S. Paschos
The present chapter contains a thorough investigation of Quality of Service, Energy Conservation and mobility in 802.11 and 802.16 standards.... Sample PDF
A Case Study on the QoS, Energy Consumption and Mobility of WLANs and WMANs
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Chapter 10
Panagiotis Kasimatis, Dimitra Varla
This chapter deals with the description of the various applied Mobile System Architectures, showing the evolution path towards the IP Convergence... Sample PDF
Mobile Telecom System Architectures—IMS an Evolution Path Towards IP Convergence
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Chapter 11
Peter Brida, Peter Cepel, Jan Duha
This chapter deals with mobile positioning in wireless heterogeneous next generation networks. Positioning process is analyzed and the chapter gives... Sample PDF
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Chapter 12
Anthony Ioannidis, Jiorgis Kritsotakis
Convergence in the communication industry is a reality – networks are being integrated, digital devices are being unified, and organizations seeking... Sample PDF
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Chapter 13
Costas Chaikalis, Felip Riera-Palou
Modern and future wireless communication systems such as UMTS and beyond 3G systems (B3G) are expected to support very high data rates to/from... Sample PDF
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Chapter 14
Apostolos Georgiadis, Carles Fernández Prades
Multi-antenna systems incorporating smart antenna techniques present numerous advantages compared to their single antenna counterparts including... Sample PDF
Novel Multi-Antenna and Smart Antenna Techniques for Next Generation Wireless Communication Networks
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Chapter 15
Stelios A. Mitilineos, Christos N. Capsalis, Stelios C.A. Thomopoulos
Small-scale fading strongly affects the performance of a radio link; therefore radio channel simulation tools and models are broadly being used in... Sample PDF
Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications
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Chapter 16
Petros Karadimas
This chapter studies a composite stochastic model, in which the diffuse component arises from three dimensional (3-D) multipath scattering. That... Sample PDF
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Chapter 17
Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos
As a consequence of the growing interest in wireless communications systems, much effort is being devoted to the channel characterization and... Sample PDF
Channel Characterization and Modelling for Mobile Communications
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Chapter 18
Fotis C. Kitsios, Spyros P. Angelopoulos, John Zannetopoulos
There is no doubt that e-government is a phenomenon of our era. E-business is becoming vital on the private sector as well as in the governmental... Sample PDF
Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services
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Chapter 19
Spyros P. Angelopoulos, Fotis C. Kitsios, Eduard Babulak
Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying a solid foundation for the future generation... Sample PDF
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Chapter 20
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Chapter 21
D. M. Emiris
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Chapter 22
Achilles D. Kameas
This chapter describes a human centric approach for designing and deploying ubiquitous computing applications. These are considered as activity... Sample PDF
Deploying Ubiquitous Computing Applications on Heterogeneous Next Generation Networks
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Chapter 23
Eduard Babulak, Konstantinos G. Ioannou, Athanasios Ioannou
Transportation and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the... Sample PDF
Channel Management Schemes to Support Services in Ubiquitous Communications Infrastructures for Future Transportation Technologies
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About the Contributors