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Learning Organizations vs. Static Organizations in the Context of E-HRM

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-883-3.ch090|
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MLA

Wang, Victor C.X. "Learning Organizations vs. Static Organizations in the Context of E-HRM." Encyclopedia of Human Resources Information Systems: Challenges in e-HRM. IGI Global, 2009. 617-622. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-883-3.ch090

APA

Wang, V. C. (2009). Learning Organizations vs. Static Organizations in the Context of E-HRM. In T. Torres-Coronas, & M. Arias-Oliva (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Human Resources Information Systems: Challenges in e-HRM (pp. 617-622). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-883-3.ch090

Chicago

Wang, Victor C.X. "Learning Organizations vs. Static Organizations in the Context of E-HRM." In Encyclopedia of Human Resources Information Systems: Challenges in e-HRM, ed. Teresa Torres-Coronas and Mario Arias-Oliva, 617-622 (2009), accessed November 23, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59904-883-3.ch090

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Abstract

Electronic human resource management (e-HRM) may mean that human resource management must now embrace electronic provisions. The environments that today’s managers work in have changed. The methods through which human resource managers choose to ameliorate an organization have changed. With the current technological revolution taking place, management methods can be catered to electronically. Although applying e-based solutions to human resource management is important, managers must have a clear view of what learning and static organizations may entail in order to add the electronic effect to ameliorate management. Without in-depth knowledge of learning organizations vs. static organizations, e-HRM would become an empty term. In today’s organizations, corporate leaders use strategies such as “downsizing,” “restructuring,” and “merging” in an effort to prevent an organization from collapsing or going bankrupt. Such organizations that go through these processes wish to say goodbye to their past, which may qualify them as what we call static organizations. To depart from static organizations, today’s organizations must strive to become what we call learning organizations in order to remain competitive in a global economy (Petty & Brewer, 2005). Learning organizations are drastically different from static organizations in terms of structure, atmosphere, management philosophy, decision making, and communication. Addressing these indispensable aspects may lead to the rise or fall of an organization in today’s competitive global economy.
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Background

Both scholars and practitioners have pointed out that learning organizations are born of static organizations, just like the saying, “failure is the mother of success.” To better understand the attributes of learning organizations, some important aspects of static organizations must be discussed first. Numerous studies (e.g., Arends & Arends, 1977; Baldridge & Dean, 1975; Bennis, Benne, & Chin, 1968; Goodlad, 1975; Greiner, 1971) have indicated that static organizations possess some dimensions that are really worth the attention of corporate leaders, human resources development (HRD), and human resources management (HRM) practitioners. Without the knowledge of static organizations, it will be extremely hard for static organizations to transform themselves into learning organizations. Static organizations are first of all rigid (Knowles, 1978). In these organizations, much energy is given to maintaining permanent departments and committees. Respect is given to tradition, constitution, and by laws. These organizations are hierarchical. In other words, they adhere to a chain of command. Employees’ roles are defined rather narrowly. Both organizational leaders and employees focus on tasks (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969). The organizational atmosphere is impersonal, cold, formal, reserved, and suspicious with personnel managed through coercive power. Employees are cautious and low risk-taking. They tend to avoid errors. It is not an open system (McGregor, 1960). Instead, organizations feature closed systems regarding sharing resources. There is little tolerance for ambiguity. In static organizations, there is high participation at top, but low participation at bottom. Employees are reserved and do not work wholeheartedly for organizational goals. There is a clear distinction between policy making and policy execution. It is worth noting that decisions are made by legal mechanisms and that any decisions are considered final. Communication is one-way communication or downward communication. Feelings are rather repressed or hidden. A natural flow of communication is restricted. These are the basic characteristics of static organizations that prevent today’s organizations from remaining competitive in a global economy. Because static organizations reveal these unproductive practices, HRD and HRM consultants constantly seek to solve these problems. These problems are manifold and solving one problem does not lead to stopping static organizations from collapsing. The best solution is to transform these static organizations into learning organizations that will embrace these problems in a way that these organizations can be reinvigorated again in this global economy (Cramer & Wasiak, 2006). A pertinent question to ask will be: “What are learning organizations?”

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Foreword
Mila Gascó-Hernandez
Chapter 1
Bonnie S. O’Neill, Todd Nilson
Developing trust among team members is critical for achieving high performance outcomes. Recently, global business operations necessitated working... Sample PDF
Achieving High Performance Outcomes through Trust in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 2
Veronique Guilloux, Michel Kalika
The free licenses specify the principles of use and diffusion of the free software while supporting the open and collective innovation (Chesbrough... Sample PDF
An Activity Theory View of E-HR and Open Source
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Chapter 3
L. W. Murray, Alev M. Efendioglu
Given the increased globalization and 24/7 business operations, can we reasonably expect to rely on etraining to address a forecasted worldwide... Sample PDF
Addressing Global Labor Needs Using E-Training
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Chapter 4
Tobias Keim, Tim Weitzel
Information technology in the past decade has drastically changed the human resources function. Providing support for mainly administrative... Sample PDF
An Adoption and Diffusion Perspective on HRIS Usage
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Chapter 5
Eleanna Galanaki, Leda Panayotopoulou
Fairly recently numerous technological applications have emerged, claiming to cover nearly every “traditional” human resources management (HRM)... Sample PDF
Adoption and Success of E-HRM in European Firms
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Chapter 6
Gloria Lau, Val Hooper
Human resources are usually the most expensive resource in any organization. They thus need careful management. The aim of human resources... Sample PDF
Adoption of E-HRM in Large New Zealand Organizations
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Chapter 7
Victor C.X. Wang
A good question human resources development (HRD) and human resources management (HRM) practitioners ask is “why do we explore learning theories?”... Sample PDF
Andragogy and Pedagogy in Learning Theories
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Chapter 8
Peter M. Wald, Rainhart Lang
Nowadays, most human resources (HR) managers are confronted with cost pressure, the demand for offering “high-quality-HR services” and the necessity... Sample PDF
Approaches and Concepts to Restructuring Human Resources Management Functions
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Chapter 9
Ralf Burbach, Tony Dundon
The ever-increasing capabilities of human resource information technology (HRIT) and human resource information systems (HRIS) have presented HR... Sample PDF
Assessing Information Technology Capability versus Human Resource Information System Utilization
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Chapter 10
Sharon Cox
Mobile technologies such as laptops and mobile phones enable work to be conducted remotely, away from the normal working environment. Removing the... Sample PDF
Assessing the Impact of Mobile Technologies on Work-Life Balance
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Chapter 11
Luiz Antonio Joia, José Antonio Alves Silva
The scope of this article is to conduct research into the influence of the Internet on processes of personnel recruitment, in light of the growing... Sample PDF
Assessing the Use of Internet in the Recruiting Process
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Chapter 12
Jorge Valdés-Conca, Lourdes Canós-Darós
Achieving success in today’s uncertain environment is a complex and dynamic task. Companies are forced to make keen decisions for survival... Sample PDF
B2E Relationships, Intranets, and Competency Management
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Chapter 13
Roman Povalej, Peter Weiß
In this article certain pillars as basics are presented being necessary to develop Web services (W3C, 2007) supporting human resource (HR) processes... Sample PDF
Basics to Develop Web Services for Human Resources
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Chapter 14
Herwig Ostermann, Bettina Staudinger, Roland Staudinger
In its most general term a benchmark represents a point of reference from which measurements can be conducted. Translated into a business context... Sample PDF
Benchmarking Human Resource Information Systems
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Chapter 15
Diana Benito Osorio
The history of home working in Western economies can only be understood by means of changes in the systems of production in Europe and North America... Sample PDF
The Benefits of Home-Based Working's Flexibility
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Chapter 16
Emma Parry
The use of technology within human resource management has grown considerably over the last decade with the majority of organizations now using some... Sample PDF
The Benefits of Using Technology in Human Resource Management
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Chapter 17
Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Roland Staudinger
Businesses are subject to a constant process of change irrespective of whether this change is intended or not. Along with incorporating basic... Sample PDF
Business, Information Technology, and Human Resource Strategy Alignment
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Chapter 18
Peter Stokes
Within the broad context of human resource management (HRM), the professional growth and improvement of employees, particularly managers, through... Sample PDF
Challenges of Simulation in Management Development
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Chapter 19
Jacqueline A. Gilbert
The World Wide Web (WWW) was initially written as a “point and click hypertext editor” (Berners-Lee, 1998, para. 2). Used as a search device by... Sample PDF
Collaboration Intricacies of Web 2.0 for Training Human Resource Managers
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Chapter 20
Ewan Oiry
Is it still possible to draw up a state of arts about collaborative technologies? For 20 years now, reflections on these technologies have become... Sample PDF
Collaborative Technologies, Applications, and Uses
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Chapter 21
Communities of Practice  (pages 142-148)
Gonçalo Costa
A dynamic and constant change, characteristic of the existent paradigm, imposes that organizations assume, as an imperative, the need to be... Sample PDF
Communities of Practice
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Chapter 22
Alfonso Urquiza
One of the greatest surprises of the Internet economy is that far from replacing people, the use of advanced technology is confirming that talent is... Sample PDF
Competency Management Information Systems
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Chapter 23
Anke Diederichsen
Virtual community (VC), in its most general sense, is an increasingly popular and apparently omnipresent tool to communicate and interact on the... Sample PDF
Conception, Categorization, and Impact of HR-Relevant Virtual Communities
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Chapter 24
Krista J. Crawford-Mathis
Technology increasingly allows one to work from anywhere, altering the mode and style of communication. Videoconferencing, online collaboration... Sample PDF
Concepts and Challenges of E-Leadership
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Chapter 25
Ricardo Colomo-Palacios, Juan Miguel Gómez-Berbís, Angel Garcia-Crespo, Cristina Casado-Lumbreras
The so-called “Internet revolution” has dramatically changed the way people communicate and work nowadays. Attending to The Word Factbook developed... Sample PDF
Concepts, Technology, and Applications in E-Mentoring
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Chapter 26
Baiyin Yang
Learning organization has received an increasing attention in the literature of organization and management studies, but only few empirical studies... Sample PDF
Conceptualization and Evolution of Learning Organizations
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Chapter 27
Joseph Abiodun Bello, Adeniji Anthonia Adenike
There have been studies on conflict resolutions but many focused on regional inter-tribe and international conflicts between or among nations of the... Sample PDF
Conflict Resolution in E-HRM Environments
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Chapter 28
Ana Isabel Jiménez-Zarco, María Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, Óscar González-Benito
In the current environment, knowledge constitutes the starting point for the development of all economic and social agents’ activities and behaviors... Sample PDF
Consequences and Strategic Implications of Networked Enterprise and Human Resources
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Chapter 29
Wendy R. Carroll
Technology advances have dramatically affected the ways in which we manage and organize work. With new evolutions of technologically mediated... Sample PDF
Considering Call Center Developments in E-HRM
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Chapter 30
Tanya Bondarouk, Jan Kees Looise
A lot has been done in the research into information technologies for HR purposes. Beginning in the 1960- s, personnel management was an early... Sample PDF
A Contingency Perspective on the Implementation of E Performance Management
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Chapter 31
Marina Burakova-Lorgnier
The philosophic premises of the social capital theory (SCT) number centuries of years. However, the term itself became explicit only in the second... Sample PDF
Contributions of Social Capital Theory to HRM
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Chapter 32
Zuzana Sasovova, Roger Th. A.J. Leenders
Human resource management (HRM) can influence an organization’s human and organizational resources and provide organizational competitive advantage.... Sample PDF
A Corporate Social Capital View on E-HRM Implementation
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Chapter 33
Bettie C. Hall, Nancy A. Inskeep
Viable organizations use learning concepts to obtain competitive advantage and to leverage the organization’s knowledge. To remain viable, a... Sample PDF
Curricula Frameworks for an E-Learning Catalog
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Chapter 34
Martin Burgard, Franca Piazza
The increased use of information technology leads to the generation of huge amounts of data which have to be stored and analyzed by appropriate... Sample PDF
Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence Systems in the Context of E-HRM
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Chapter 35
Michael Jeffries, Raymond Papp
The need for business managers with strong information technology (IT) skills in general, and data communication and networking skills in... Sample PDF
Developing an Innovative Curriculum to Prepare Networking Professionals for the Global Marketplace
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Chapter 36
Kathleen P. King, James J. King
A common misconception is that health concerns in the workplace are only relevant in manual-labor fields or work zones that deal with hazardous... Sample PDF
Developments, Controversies, and Applications of Ergonomics
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Chapter 37
Miguel R. Olivas-Luján, Gary W. Florkowski
From an historical perspective, human resource (HR) activities rarely captured the respect of line executives who often view this area as “staff... Sample PDF
The Diffusion of HRITs Across English- Speaking Countries
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Chapter 38
Paul Capriotti
In Castells’ (2001) definition of the information society, the term information refers to a specific form of social organization in which the... Sample PDF
E-Communication in the Information Society and the Impact of New Technologies on Employee Communication
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Chapter 39
Kenneth D. Mackenzie, Larry E. Pate
Most studies of leadership focus on leaders who have responsibility for a group of people. This group is usually either an organization or a unit... Sample PDF
Effective Leadership in Virtual-Like Organizational Arrangements
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Chapter 40
Jonas F. Puck, Anda Paul
The use of technology in personnel recruiting has increased tremendously within the last few years. In particular, the World Wide Web (www) has... Sample PDF
Efficiency of Electronic Recruiting Methods
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Chapter 41
Rhoda C. Joseph, Souha R. Ezzedeen
From the Clinton-Gore attempts to “reinvent government” to public reform laws enacted worldwide, it is apparent that governments are responding to... Sample PDF
E-Government and E-HRM in the Public Sector
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Chapter 42
Gonca Telli Yamamoto, Ahmet Özbek
The human resources (HR) profession has had a rich history: that is, from the concept of labor unions in 1930 to the creation of selection tools in... Sample PDF
E-HRM as a Reality in Virtual World
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Chapter 43
Alok Mishra
HR executives are looking to technology and the information it provides to help them drive decisions that will lead to success of the organization... Sample PDF
E-HRM Challenges and Opportunities
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Chapter 44
Marko Kesti, Antti Syväjärvi, Jari Stenvall
The human resource management (HRM) can be structured according to different key perspectives (e.g., Stone, 2002). One viewpoint concerns the... Sample PDF
E-HRM in Competence Recognition and Management
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Chapter 45
Chen H. Chung
Motivation deals with the understanding of what makes people work and the approaches to making people work (Donnelly, Gibson, & Ivancevich, 1992).... Sample PDF
An E-HRM Perspective on Motivation
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Chapter 46
Thomas L. Case, Robert Hoell
Performance management systems are tools that measure employee performance in terms of meaningful standards and goals, in a manner that aligns... Sample PDF
Electronic Employee Performance Management (EPM) Systems
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Chapter 47
Daria Panina
Recent advances in technology have led to the rapid development of electronic monitoring in the workplace (Chen & Ross, 2007). Electronic monitoring... Sample PDF
Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace
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Chapter 48
Bettie C. Hall, Nancy A. Inskeep
In the modern world with an increasingly independent and mobile workforce, the traditional relationship between an employer and its employees is... Sample PDF
Employee Incentives and Retention for an E-World
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Chapter 49
Punit Arora
Over 30 years of research on the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and financial performance (FP) has yielded no conclusive... Sample PDF
Employees and Corporate Social Performance
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Chapter 50
Crystal M. Harold, Kevin P. Nolan
Researchers and human resource professionals alike are turning to the marketing literature to understand how to effectively “brand” organizations in... Sample PDF
Employer Brand Image Review and Future Strategies
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Chapter 51
Herwig Ostermann, Bettina Staudinger, Magdalena Thoeni, Roland Staudinger
Beginning with the upsurge of the industrial revolution and the subsequent implementation of labor division practices in most production processes... Sample PDF
An Employer-Employee Relationship Perspective on Rewards, Challenges,and Systems
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Chapter 52
Brian H. Cameron, Shaun C. Knight
In today’s global, hyper-competitive business environment, enterprise alignment is a top concern with senior management. With mergers, global joint... Sample PDF
Enterprise Alignment and the Challenge for Organization Development
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Chapter 53
Pramila Rao
Electronic human resource management (e-HRM) is the process of using online technology for human resource management activities, such as... Sample PDF
E-Recruitment in Emerging Economies
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Chapter 54
Anastasia A. Katou
Although many studies, such as Ball (2001), Chapman and Webster (2003), and West and Berman (2001) have shown how e-recruiting and e-selection... Sample PDF
E-Resourcing as an Effective Function of E-HRM Performance Linkage Models
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Chapter 55
Donna Galla
This article discusses the use of online or electronic e-training in ethical behavior and why this training is important to companies their... Sample PDF
E-Training in Ethical Behavior
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Chapter 56
Thomas L. Case, Geoffrey N. Dick, Craig Van Slyke
E-learning may be described as the utilization of technology to support the delivery of education. Although e-learning has been around for a long... Sample PDF
Expediting Personalized Just-in-Time Training with E Learning Management Systems
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Chapter 57
Casey G. Cegielski, Dianne Hall
During the decade of the 1990s, many firms engaged in widespread internal dissemination of information technology (IT) in an effort to leverage the... Sample PDF
An Exploration of the Perceived Value of Information Technology Certification between Information Technology and Human Resources Professionals
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Chapter 58
Eva Rimbau-Gilabert
The expansion of flexible work experienced since the 1980s in developed economies is consistent with a more generic trend towards organizational... Sample PDF
Exploring the Link between Flexible Work and Organizational Performance
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Chapter 59
José Antonio Fernández-Sánchez, Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Jorge Valdés-Conca
An information system (IS) is “a set of people, procedures, and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an... Sample PDF
Exploring the Relation between the Use of HRIS and their Implementation in Spanish Firms
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Chapter 60
Tobias Keim, Kerstin Fritsch
Since the early 1990s, relationship-oriented approaches to product and services marketing have gained increasing interest by research and practice.... Sample PDF
Extending Relationship Marketing to Human Resources Management Using the CaRM Approach to Personnel Recruitment
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Chapter 61
James Yao, John Wang
In the late 1960s, a new type of information system came about: model-oriented DSS or management decision systems. By the late 1970s, a number of... Sample PDF
Group Support Systems as Tools for HR Decision Making
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Chapter 62
Ferdinando Pennarola, Leonardo Caporarello
The constant growth of the role that information technology (IT) is playing in business today has led to the development of new business models and... Sample PDF
High Performance IT as Strategic Partner for HR Management
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Chapter 63
Dino Ruta
The aim of this chapter is to present the coevolution of technology and human resource management, considering the role of enabler that information... Sample PDF
HR Portals as Tools for Relational Resources Management
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Chapter 64
Miguel Blanco Callejo
Many studies have shown that total quality management (TQM) represents an up-to-date approach to the management of companies in a complex... Sample PDF
HRIS as Drivers to Introduce Total Quality in HRM
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Chapter 65
Benjamin Oyegoke Akinyemi
The critical role of human capital (HC) in creating and sustaining the competitive edge at organizational and national levels is recognized by... Sample PDF
Human Capital Management for Sustainable Competitive Advantage in the New Economy
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Chapter 66
Rosemarie Reynolds, Shirley Fedorovich, Michael Williams
Although emerging computer technologies impact every aspect of human resource management, there is a considerable gap between research focusing on... Sample PDF
The Human Resource Implications of Computers
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Chapter 67
Charmine E.J. Härtel
Knowledge is the currency of the new economy and consequently information is power. For this reason, it is a business imperative to grow and shape... Sample PDF
Human Resources as Manager of the Human Imprint
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Chapter 68
Juha Kettunen
Strategic planning is a matter of mapping the route between the perceived present circumstances and the desired future situation. Strategic... Sample PDF
Human Resources in the Balanced Scorecard System
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Chapter 69
Kathryn J. Ready, Milorad Novicevic, Monica Evans
Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) has become a new indispensable standard operating procedure for public companies competing in the... Sample PDF
Human Resources Information Systems Role in Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) Compliance
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Chapter 70
Veronique Guilloux, Michel Kalika
Often, organizations externalize work activities and use employment intermediaries (consulting firms, temporary help agencies, contract companies... Sample PDF
Human Resources Outsourcing Strategies
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Chapter 71
Gregory G. Manley
Historically, people have an expectation of being treated fairly, particularly in the workplace. A variety of laws exist in the U.S. to encourage... Sample PDF
Human Resources Strategies for Fair and Legal Employee Selection
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Chapter 72
Benet Campderrich
In order to get information from the computers people must give them information and commands, therefore human-computer interaction (HCI) consists... Sample PDF
Human-Computer Interaction: A Human Resources Perspective
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Chapter 73
Andre L. Araujo
Both scholars and practitioners have widely acknowledged that the successful management of virtual teams requires a good understanding about the... Sample PDF
The Importance of Task Type in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 74
Jeffrey M. Pollack
Advances in technology now enable employers to utilize computers to administer online employee selection tests, which result in lower costs... Sample PDF
Improving Employee Selection with Online Testing
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Chapter 75
Daphna Shwarts-Asher, Niv Ahituv, Dalia Etzion
There has been a transformation from individual work to team work in the last few decades (Ilgen, 1999), and many organizations use teams for many... Sample PDF
Improving Virtual Teams through Swift Structure
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Chapter 76
Milton Mayfield, Jacqueline Mayfield, Stephen Lunce
This article gives an overview on using a human resource information system (HRIS) to enhance tacit knowledge sharing. Developing and implementing... Sample PDF
Increasing Tacit Knowledge Sharing with an HRIS
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Chapter 77
Eric Deakins
Since the late 1990s, human resources information systems (HRIS) that exploit inexpensive browser technology have been implemented by companies and... Sample PDF
Influence of Job Relevance, Output Quality, Task Technology Fit, and Privacy Concerns on Human Resources Information Systems Usage
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Chapter 78
José A. Lastres-Segret, José M. Núñez-Gorrín
The use of traditional marketing tools with the purpose to increase effectiveness and efficacy within organizations has been studied among different... Sample PDF
Information Technologies as a Vital Channel for an Internal E-Communication Strategy
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Chapter 79
Giuseppe Berio, Mounira Harzallah, Giovanni Maria Sacco
Software applications dealing with human resources and their skills, attitudes, and knowledge (such as e-learning systems, skills databases... Sample PDF
An Integrating Architecture for Competence Management
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Chapter 80
Francisca Castilla-Polo, Dolores Gallardo-Vázquez
There is a growing demand to know the status and evolution of firms’ intangible assets. It is motivated by the strategic relevance assigned to these... Sample PDF
Intellectual Capital Models and their Role within Information Systems
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Chapter 81
John Wang, James Yao, Jeffrey Hsu
Over the four decades of its history, decision support systems (DSSs) have moved from a radical movement that changed the way information systems... Sample PDF
Interactive, Flexible, and Adaptable Decision Support Systems
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Chapter 82
Maria Assumpta Aneas
Globalization is increasingly having a visible impact on the importance attached to interculturality in organizations, an impact which is even... Sample PDF
Intercultural Competences as a Trust Factor in Virtual Team Work
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Chapter 83
Janusz Wielki
Currently there are many studies which deal with the impact of the Internet and Internet technology-based tools on organizations. Most of them are... Sample PDF
Internet Technology-Based Tools Utilization in the Workplace of Contemporary Organizations: The Implications
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Chapter 84
Elena Revilla, José Sánchez-Alarcos
In a dynamic environment, knowledge is the only valid asset that allows organizations to adapt and change. That is why knowledge is one of the few... Sample PDF
IT and the Social Construction of Knowledge
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Chapter 85
Sherry E. Sullivan, Lisa A. Mainiero, Siri Terjesen
The quotations from Isobel and Jackie illustrate the very real problems that individuals encounter when trying to combine work, family, and... Sample PDF
Kaleidoscope Careers and Evolving HRM Issues
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Chapter 86
Victor C.X. Wang
With the wide use of computer technology nowadays, organizational management in recent times appears to be more complex than it ever was. Electronic... Sample PDF
Knowledge Facilitator vs. Knowledge Dictator in Today's Organizations
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Chapter 87
Sharon Cox, John Perkins
Information and communication technology (ICT) helps to remove barriers and improve mechanisms that support e-business. E-business involves... Sample PDF
A Knowledge Management Approach to Improving E Business Collaboration
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Chapter 88
Mario Pérez-Montoro
Within the last 10 years we have witnessed the appearance and consolidation of a brand- new discipline, that of knowledge management (KM), which has... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Organizations
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Chapter 89
Ángel L. Meroño-Cerdán
Designing information systems from the traditional database orientation is not sufficient to cope with today’s organisational difficulties.... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Systems as a Framework for IT in Knowledge Management
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Chapter 90
Victor C.X. Wang
Electronic human resource management (e-HRM) may mean that human resource management must now embrace electronic provisions. The environments that... Sample PDF
Learning Organizations vs. Static Organizations in the Context of E-HRM
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Chapter 91
Lichia Yiu, Raymond Saner
Since the 1990s, more and more corporate learning has been moved online to allow for flexibility, just-in-time learning, and cost saving in... Sample PDF
Making E-Training Cost Effective through Quality Assurance
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Chapter 92
José A. Lastres Segret, Mariangélica Cadagan García
Due to their nature and market position, service companies are committed to excellence. But to achieve excellence they must have a clear vision of... Sample PDF
The Management of the Human Resources and the Quality of the Services
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Chapter 93
Benjamin Oyegoke Akinyemi
Employees have other expectations as an extension of what is usually expressly stated in formal, written or legally binding employment contracts.... Sample PDF
Managing the New Psychological Contract
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Chapter 94
Robert J. Mockler, Dorothy G. Dologite
Initially, substantial information regarding the patient’s condition upon entrance into the hospital or emergency room is needed and has to be... Sample PDF
Medical IT Systems and Their Effect on Human Resources
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Chapter 95
Barbara A. Ritter
The use of online technology and computer-mediated communication continues to increase dramatically in organizations, bringing with it new avenues... Sample PDF
The New Face of Sexual Harassment
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Chapter 96
Indira R. Guzman
Previous research about the people who work with information and communication technologies (ICT) have studied this group of workers from several... Sample PDF
Occupational Culture and Socialization in IS
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Chapter 97
Online Dispute Resolution  (pages 668-675)
Noam Ebner
The past few decades have seen explosive growth in the degree to which disputes that would previously have been litigated in court, or simply... Sample PDF
Online Dispute Resolution
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Chapter 98
J. Kratzer, Roger Th. A.J. Leenders, J.M.L. Van Engelen
Communication is a basic process of organization. When one conceives the organization as an everchanging system of interactions (White, 1992), one... Sample PDF
Orchestrating the Multi-Channel Character of Formal and Informal Communication in "Virtual Teams"
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Chapter 99
Francisco Javier Forcadell
Organizational democracy is achieved when the organization applies the principles of democracy to design the way it operates, cultivating a... Sample PDF
Organizational Factors for Implementing E-Democracy in Organizations
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Chapter 100
Dino Ruta
The aim of this article is to study the employee experience of human resource information systems (HRIS) as the sum of all perceptions that... Sample PDF
Organizational Implications of Managing the HRIS Employee Experience
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Chapter 101
María del Carmen Triana
Research has demonstrated that organizational justice, the study of fairness in organizations, has an impact on both individual and team outcomes.... Sample PDF
Organizational Justice in Virtual Team Settings
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Chapter 102
Siti Zubaidah Othman
Reasons for the low level usage of human resource information systems (HRIS) have been examined from various perspectives in the HRIS literature... Sample PDF
The Planning Fallacy and Utilization of Human Resources Information Systems
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Chapter 103
Kathleen P. King
The impact that e-learning has had on the workplace over the last 20 years is paramount. From video-conferencing to desktop Webinars, business has... Sample PDF
Podcasting as Mobile Learning
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Chapter 104
Bettina Staudinger, Herwig Ostermann, Roland Staudinger
Personnel administration is a part of general business administration and an integrative element of the process management of an enterprise.... Sample PDF
Process Standardization and Integration for Human Resource Administration
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Chapter 105
Michael J. Provitera
The purpose of this article is to review the extant literature on electronic-leadership (e-leadership) and illustrate how it has impacted human... Sample PDF
Processes, Prospects, and Promises of Electronic Leadership
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Chapter 106
Bettie C. Hall, Nancy A. Inskeep
Project management skills are essential in today’s business environment. In the case of electronic human resource management (e-HRM) projects, these... Sample PDF
Project Management Concepts for E-HRM
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Chapter 107
Evandro Bocatto, Eloísa Pérez-de-Toledo
A concept is a logical construction that is established in accordance with a framework and is part of it (Ferrari, 1977). According to this... Sample PDF
Redefining the Concept of HRIS
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Chapter 108
Yvan Leray
At the hour when the economic activities leaned with technology (e.g., the Internet) give some signs of maturity, the field of the economy of... Sample PDF
Relations between Knowledge Acquisition Forms and Sources of Power in Organization
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Chapter 109
Veronique Guilloux, Michel Kalika, Florence Laval
The first book devoted to intranets was published in the United States in 1996. However, theorists and experts worked in the 80’s on the topic about... Sample PDF
A Research Classification for HR Intranets
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Chapter 110
Victor C.X. Wang
To determine whether a country is well developed or not, one can look at how much intelligent work people in that country engage in. It is safe to... Sample PDF
The Right Work Ethic for Human Resource Managers
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Chapter 111
John Wang, Ruiliang Yan, Yanli Zhang
Project management is the discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing (or just allocating) the use of resources, that is, time... Sample PDF
Risks, Gaps, and Global Issues of Project Management
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Chapter 112
Amy E. Hurley-Hanson
“On Sept. 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the World Trade Center, killing 2,749 people. The attack resulted in severe economic impact, especially to... Sample PDF
The Role of HRIS in Crisis Response Planning
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Chapter 113
Pamela Marie Dixon, Paul M. Shelton
There has been a proliferation of adaptable work arrangements in United States (U.S.) organizations, which is driven by a convergence of information... Sample PDF
The Role of ICT in Support of Adaptable Work Arrangements
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Chapter 114
Ana Maria Ramalho Correia, Anabela Mesquita
The dominant discourse in education and training policies, at the turn of the millennium, was on lifelong learning (LLL) in the context of a... Sample PDF
The Role of Lifelong Learning in the Creation of a European Knowledge-Based Society
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Chapter 115
Marc-André Vilette
Many authors and journalists underline the dominate place of small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in the economy, especially in France: 60% of... Sample PDF
Shared-Time Work and E-HRM in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
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Chapter 116
José Sanchez-Alarcos, Elena Revilla
For anyone with an education in literary or philosophical confines, coming across the word “semiotics” in a business dictionary might seem strange.... Sample PDF
The Sign-Meaning Chain and its Implications for the Organization
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Chapter 117
Ray Gibney, Thomas J. Zagenczyk, Marick F. Masters
Internet technology has enhanced the efficiency of the human resource (HR) function in organizations by making the use of self-service technology... Sample PDF
Social Capital and the Practice Lens Approach
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Chapter 118
Joseph Abiodun Bello
The literature of small group dynamics is replete with studies emanating from small group experimentalists interested in the subject matter of... Sample PDF
Social Cognitive Trust Model
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Chapter 119
Lichia Yiu, Raymond Saner
Human capital is seen as one of the key factor conditions contributing to national competitiveness and economic performance (Porter, 2002).... Sample PDF
Standards for Skill Training and Development
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Chapter 120
Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko
Managerial practices and changes can be understood and appreciated when placed in a historical context. Kramar (2006) suggests that the starting... Sample PDF
Supporting Work-Family Amalgamation through E-HRM
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Chapter 121
Stefan Strohmeier
The application of electronic human resource management (e-HRM) does rest heavily on underlying information technologies (IT). Up until now... Sample PDF
Technology, Functionality, and Applicability of Portals in E-HRM
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Chapter 122
Telemedicine Barriers  (pages 830-835)
María José Crisóstomo-Acevedo, José Aurelio Medina-Garrido
Telemedicine implies that there is an exchange of information, without personal contact, between two physicians or between a physician and a... Sample PDF
Telemedicine Barriers
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Chapter 123
Krista J. Crawford-Mathis
One of the key functions of the human resource division is the training and development of the organizational staff. Technology is forcing change... Sample PDF
Theory and Application of Leadership
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Chapter 124
Adeniji Anthonia Adenike
Employees are the most essential resource of an organization. They are vital to a company’s success. Without them, it would seize to exist.... Sample PDF
Tools and Techniques for Designing Effective Compensation Systems
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Chapter 125
Victor C.X. Wang
As organizational management in recent times has become more complex, adding the electronic effect to ameliorate human resource management is... Sample PDF
Traditional Leadership in Light of E-HRMS
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Chapter 126
José-Rodrigo Córdoba
In the era of globalization, the use of technologies like the Internet has created possibilities for individuals to interact across geographical... Sample PDF
Trans-Disciplinary Collaboration and Information Systems
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Chapter 127
Lauren Edelstein Henry, Doris Lee
Knowledge is considered a major asset for companies competing in today’s knowledge-based economy. Management and retention of this knowledge is a... Sample PDF
Transferring Knowledge in a Knowledge-Based Economy
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Chapter 128
Transformative Learning  (pages 871-876)
Kathleen P. King
Given the broad spectrum of life experience as we reach adulthood, our learning histories, abilities and preferences are as varied as we are. Thus... Sample PDF
Transformative Learning
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Chapter 129
Xiaoya Liang
Human resources management system (HRMS) is one of the core components in any major enterprise resource planning (ERP) application suite since its... Sample PDF
Transforming Compensation Management Practices through Web-Based Enterprise Technologies
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Chapter 130
Trust Multidimensionality  (pages 883-890)
Alfonso Miguel Márquez-García
Trust always exists in any form of personal relationship (Deutsch, 1958; Gambetta, 1988) and it is a basic concept to describe social interactions... Sample PDF
Trust Multidimensionality
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Chapter 131
José-Rodrigo Córdoba
It has not been long since the use of information technologies and systems has pervaded group processes inn organizations. There is a vast amount of... Sample PDF
Using Collaborative Technology in Group Facilitation
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Chapter 132
José M. Carretero-Gómez
Within the field of human resource management (HRM) there is a broad consensus recognizing that people is one of the key resources that impact... Sample PDF
Utility Analysis of HRM Effectiveness
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Top

Key Terms in this Chapter

IQ: This refers to one’s intelligence quotient, a measurement of intelligence based on standardized test scores. Although IQ tests are still widely used in the United States, there has been increasing doubt voiced about their ability to measure the mental capacities that determine success in life. IQ testing has also been criticized for being biased with regard to race and gender

Merging: Merging refers to the process of being combined or becoming combined. Organizations often merge into one in order not to waste resources. For example, recently K-Mart and Sears in the United States of America merged into one company where customers can use the same credit card issued by Sears to shop at both K-Mart and Sears. This kind of merging will facilitate their management at both Sears and K-Mart. Many universities and colleges in developing countries have merged into mega universities in order to better serve students

Learning Organizations: Learning organizations refer to innovative organizations that strive to transform themselves from static organizations to learning organizations. Anything that does not work for these organizations is bound to be changed in a timely manner. In this article, learning organizations are flexible, people-centered, and operated through supportive power with high participation at all levels. Decisions are treated as hypotheses and their system is open. Communication is multidirectional. Above all, employees’ energy is released rather than suppressed. Learning organizations are full of learning facilitators instead of knowledge dictators. Leaders in learning organizations serve as resource persons, linking employees to learning resources. Leaders in learning organizations reward their employees in a fair and open manner. Leaders in learning organizations are creative leaders that strive to release the energy of their employees. They understand that power they hold need to be delegated rather than reinforced through coercion. Coercion is a technique mostly used by leaders who do not believe in the Y assumptions of human beings. Creative leaders in learning organizations have faith in pent up energy of human beings. Therefore, they utilize a facilitative approach to their leadership styles

Ambiguity: This is the noun from the adjective ambiguous which means confusing, able to be understood in different ways

Restructuring: Restructuring refers to the process of reorganizing an organization, often to make a work force smaller in order to be profitable in a global economy. Restructuring often occurs as a result of organizational leaders changing their management philosophies. Sometimes, organizations have to shut down in order to do restructuring. Leaders and employees in these organizations need to reflect upon their practices to find out where things have gone wrong. Often times, they find conflict between leadership and management. Leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action. Management is about coping with complexity whereas leadership is about coping with change

Dimension: It this article, it is used as a countable noun. Thus, it means a measurement of something in one direction

Hierarchical: This is the adjective form of the noun hierarchy which means an organization from higher to lower by rank, social status, or function. In this article, it also means that a static organization is too rigid. It adheres to a rigid chain of command

Downsizing: Downsizing refers to the process of making smaller, especially a work force or business. In this article, it also refers to laying off employees. Although this may not be the best solution to existing problems in today’s organizations, this technique may help ease the shrinking operating budget of an organization. Employees are meant to produce surplus value. If they are unproductive for whatever reasons, their jobs should be terminated and handed over to those who can produce surplus value

Static Organizations: In general, static organizations refer to organizations that are not moving or changing in the right direction. In this article, static organizations refer to organizations that are rigid, task-oriented, controlled through coercive power without proper participation expected at all levels, and so forth. Any decisions made in these organizations are considered final and communication is top-down. Many factors lead to static organizations. Confusion between management and leadership is a huge factor that leads to static organizations. Employee morale is another factor. The level of education of employees also contributes to static organizations. When examining static organizations, it is always a good idea to approach them comprehensively. One single factor alone does not necessarily lead to static organizations