Mobile Computing: Technology Challenges, Constraints, and Standards
Anastasis A. Sofokleous (Brunel University, UK), Marios C. Angelides (Brunel University, UK) and Christos N. Schizas (University of Cyprus, Cyprus)
Copyright © 2009.
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Mobile communications and computing has changed forever the way people communicate and interact and it has made “any information, any device, any network, anytime, anywhere” an everyday reality which we all take for granted. This chapter discusses the main research and development in the mobile technology and standards that made ubiquity a reality: from wireless middleware to wireless client profiling to m-commerce services.
Wireless Technologies And Standards
Currently, the focus is on wireless technologies and standards, such as in the area of network connectivity, communication protocols, standards and device characteristics (e.g., computing performance, memory, and presentation). A lot of technologies are being proposed and investigated by researchers and practitioners, some of which have been incorporated in industrial wireless products whose aim is to dominate the next generation market (Figure 1).
Wireless technologies and standards
Among the most known communication standards and wireless deployments are the GSM, TDMA, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, GPRS, SMS, MMS, HSCSD, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11, etc. GSM (global system for mobile communications) is a 2G digital wireless standard, which is the most widely used digital mobile phone system. GSM uses the three classical multiple access processes, space division multiple access (SDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), and time division multiple access (TDMA) in parallel and simultaneously (Heine & Sagkob, 2003). CDMA (code division multiple access), which is also a second generation (2G) wireless standard, works by some means different than the previous wireless. It can be distinguished in the way information is transmitted over the air, since it uses unique coding for each call or data session, which allows a mobile device to distinguish other transmissions on the same frequency. Therefore this technology allows every wireless device in the same area to utilize the same channel of spectrum, and at the same time to sort out the calls by encoding each one uniquely. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a packet-switched service that allows data communications (with data rates significantly faster than a GSM — 53.6kbps for downloading data) to be sent and received over the existing global system for mobile (GSM) communications network. The introduction of EDGE (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) enhances the connection bandwidth over the GSM network. It is a 3G technology that enables the provision of advanced mobile services (e.g., the downloading of video and music files, the high-speed color Internet access and e-mail) anywhere and anytime.
Key Terms in this Chapter
EDGE: EDGE (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) is a 3G technology, which enables the provision of advanced mobile services and enhances the connection bandwidth over the GSM network.
GPRS: GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a packet-switched service that allows data communications (with data rates significantly faster than a GSM—53.6kbps for downloading data) to be sent and received over the existing global system for mobile (GSM) communications network.
MMS: MMS (multimedia messaging service) is a store and forward messaging service, which allows mobile subscribers to exchange multimedia messages with other mobile subscribers.
GSM Multiple Access Processes: GSM use space division multiple access (SDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), and time division multiple access (TDMA) in parallel and simultaneously.
M-Payment: Mobile payment is defined as the process of two parties exchanging financial value using a mobile device in return for goods or services.
GSM: GSM (global system for mobile communications) is a 2G digital wireless standard and is the most widely used digital mobile phone system.
Mobile Computing: Mobile computing encompasses a number of technologies and devices, such as wireless LANs, notebook computers, cell and smart phones, tablet PCs, and PDAs helping the organization of our life, the communication with coworkers or friends, or the accomplishment of our job more efficiently.
M-commerce: Mobile commerce is the transactions of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as cellular telephone and personal digital assistants (PDAs).