Modeling Human Resources in the Emergent Organization

Modeling Human Resources in the Emergent Organization

Marielba Zacarias (Universidade do Algarve, Portugal), Rodrigo Magalhães (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal) and José Tribolet (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-304-3.ch014
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This chapter will address the role of national culture on e-recruitment practices in India and Mexico. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) cultural study on 61 countries will be used to discuss the role of cultural dimensions on e-recruitment practices in these two countries. The chapter will also discuss the beginnings of e-recruitment trends in India and Mexico, challenges of e-recruitment for United States multinationals, national culture profile, and implications for multinational managers. This conceptual chapter will provide hypotheses for the cultural dimensions discussed. Specifically, this study will address the role of power-distance, in-group collectivism, gender egalitarianism and uncertainty-avoidance on e-recruitment practices.
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An agenda for Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) research is put forward by Magalhaes and Ruel (2008), who propose an integrative perspective for HRIS research, and stress that research in organizational and information systems cannot be separated. They argue that the integration of HRIS within organizations can be seen as an intricate web of many causes and consequences and that HRIS cannot be studied separate from the organizational context where they are interwoven. This assertion has two main implications; (1) when researching HRIS from an integrated perspective, it is crucial that the researcher approaches the topic from an appropriate ontological point of view, and (2) the scope of Human Resource Management (HRM) should not only include applications to support traditional HRM functions, but also frameworks to capture, analyze, and eventually modify the behavior of human resources (HR). Such frameworks should be developed accordingly to the ontological position defined. Social emergence is the ontological point of view defended by those authors. Sawyer (2005: 213) explains that the emergence paradigm research “focuses on the micro-interactional mechanisms by which shared social phenomena emerge and on how those emergencies constrain those mechanisms”.

In this paper we discuss an issue, which is relevant to HRIS, i.e. the problem of modeling individual-level behavior in the context of broader organizational action. Hence, it is important that the problem under review is placed within an ontological framework of the organizational phenomenon. Ontology and methodology are two sides of the same coin, meaning that the methodology used to research a particular phenomenon will depend entirely on the ontological perspective that one holds. It is submitted, firstly, that the emergence of the organizational phenomenon depends to a large degree upon the alignment between the individual and the organization. Secondly, that such alignment cannot be taken for granted; rather, it requires conscious, systematic and continuous efforts. Thirdly, that the alignment of the individual and the organization can be facilitated by (1) the development of a semi-formal models of agent behaviour at different organizational levels and (2) methods and tools to build, update and analyze the representations based on those models.

Whereas current modeling efforts are mostly directed at organizational perspectives, little attention has been paid to individual or inter-personal perspectives. Several approaches to modeling organization strategy, processes and resources have been developed. However, models for individual or inter-personal levels are scarce and have typically, different purposes. Research is needed to address the modeling of individual and interpersonal behaviors and the definition of proper ways of linking these behaviors with perspectives of higher organizational levels. More specifically, research is needed to raise awareness and to illustrate the benefits of aligning individuals and the organization. The aims of such modeling are as follows:

  • Enabling the organization to capture and visualize different concerns of individual behavior.

  • Enabling individuals to understand the relationship of their daily actions with organizational resources and activities.

  • Facilitating the analysis, discussion and (re)design of individual and inter-personal work.

Organizational modelings are of interest to HRIS due to the closeness of this category of information system and all organizational phenomenon. If organizations are defined essentially as groups of people working for a common goal, then it is clear that any information system dealing with human resources will tightly interwoven with the organization itself. There are many schools of thought in organizational modeling but in this paper we are particularly interested in a school of thought guided by the following principles: (1) agents have acting, deliberation, and learning capabilities, (2) agent exhibit multiple behaviors that depend of specific contexts of execution, and (3) such behaviors should be captured from agent actions and interactions.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Agent: Term given to individual and collective human resources of organizations

Alignment: Degree of shared understandings achieved among interacting agents.

Ontology: Branch of philosophy concerned with theories of reality. Ontological assumptions or positions concern the essence of phenomena.

Emergence: Phenomenon through which complex systems and patterns emerge from multiple simple and local interactions. Emergence is central to the theory of complex systems.

Methodology: Assumptions about the appropriate research approaches to generate valid evidence. Certain research methods have a natural affinity with certain ontological assumptions.

Work Practice: Particular ways that individuals or groups have of accomplishing their activities. Work practices are always defined by specific agents and contexts.

Context: Situations created and continually modified by agent interactions.

Autopoiesis Theory: Theory that argues that living systems are organizationally closed, autonomous, and self-referent systems. These three aspects provide them auto-creation or auto-renovation capabilities.

Agent Architecture: Organizing principles of agent models. The typical agent architecture commonly defines three layers; action, deliberation and change/learn layers. Each layer addresses a different behavioral concern of agents.

Enterprise Modeling: Term commonly used in defining efforts to model organizations in terms of different, but interrelated perspectives. Several enterprise modeling frameworks including concepts, methodologies and tools have been developed mostly within Information Systems and Artificial Intelligence disciplines. Within the information systems discipline such frameworks are commonly known as Enterprise Architectures, while in Artificial Intelligence they are better known as Enterprise Ontologies.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Tanya Bondarouk, Huub Ruel, Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Ewan Oiry
Tanya Bondarouk, Huub Ruel, Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Ewan Oiry
Chapter 1
Steve Foster
Several organisations have adopted e-HRM technology as a platform for achieving transformational change, improving HR operational processes... Sample PDF
Making Sense of e-HRM: Transformation, Technology and Power Relations
Chapter 2
Cataldo Dino Ruta
Intellectual capital is today considered a key issue in analyzing the critical determinants of company performance. Companies design more and more... Sample PDF
HR Portal: A Tool for Contingent and Individualized HRM
Chapter 3
Barbara Imperatori, Marco De Marco
The evolution of the managerial discourse is the result of fashion lifecycles that sometimes have no rational or technical foundations and find no... Sample PDF
E-Work and Labor Processes Transformation
Chapter 4
Gerwin Koopman, Ronald Batenburg
This chapter theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS... Sample PDF
Early User Involvement and Participation in Employee Self-Service Application Deployment: Theory and Evidence from Four Dutch Governmental Cases
Chapter 5
Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Ewan Oiry
In organizations, researchers as well as professionals have generally observed insufficient use of computer technologies when compared to their... Sample PDF
Does User Centered Design, Coherent with Global Corporate Strategy, Encourage Development of Human Resource Intranet Use?
Chapter 6
Nawaf Al-Ibraheem, Huub Ruël
Companies new to the e-HRM technologies are overwhelmed by the dilemma of choosing either the ready-made, off-the-shelf e-HRM systems, or develop... Sample PDF
In-House vs. Off-the-Shelf e-HRM Applications
Chapter 7
Pieternel Kuiper, Betsy van Dijk
Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more... Sample PDF
Adaptive Municipal Electronic Forms
Chapter 8
Hazel Williams, Carole Tansley, Carley Foster
Global, enterprise-wide, information systems (GEIS) projects are often delayed with budget over-runs often due to a lack of understanding of the key... Sample PDF
HRIS Project Teams Skills and Knowledge: A Human Capital Analysis
Chapter 9
Adam Smale, Jukka-Pekka Heikkilä
The design and implementation of a globally integrated e-HRM system within a multinational corporation (MNC) requires different parties to reach... Sample PDF
IT-Based Integration of HRM in a Foreign MNC Subsidiary: A Micro-Political Perspective
Chapter 10
Huub Ruël
Research on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) implementation lacks theoretical depth and richness. For that reason this paper applies a... Sample PDF
Studying Human Resource Information Systems Implementation using Adaptive Structuration Theory: The Case of an HRIS Implementation at Dow Chemical Company
Chapter 11
Jonas F. Puck, Dirk Holtbrügge, Alexander T. Mohr
This chapter empirically analyses the influence of the cultural context on the comprehensiveness to which companies in different countries make use... Sample PDF
Applicant Information and Selection Strategies in Corporate Web Site Recruiting: The Role of National Culture
Chapter 12
Emma Parry, Shaun Tyson
HR practitioners are often expected to be both efficient administrators of the employment relationship and to act as a strategic partner to the... Sample PDF
What is the Potential of E-Recruitment to Transform the Recruitment Process and the Role of the Resourcing Team?
Chapter 13
Pramilla Rao
This chapter will address the role of national culture on e-recruitment practices in India and Mexico. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and... Sample PDF
The Role of National Culture on E-Recruitment in India and Mexico
Chapter 14
Marielba Zacarias, Rodrigo Magalhães, José Tribolet
This chapter will address the role of national culture on e-recruitment practices in India and Mexico. The GLOBE (Global Leadership and... Sample PDF
Modeling Human Resources in the Emergent Organization
Chapter 15
Elfi Furtmueller, Celeste Wilderom, Rolf van Dick
In order to maintain their customer base, many e-recruiting firms are in need of developing innovations. The Lead User (LU) Method has been heralded... Sample PDF
Utilizing the Lead User Method for Promoting Innovation in E-Recruiting
Chapter 16
Sven Laumer, Andreas Eckhardt
In 2007 Erickson and Gratton asked “What it means to work here” and discussed the need for a structured approach to establishing an employer image... Sample PDF
What Makes the Difference? Introducing an Integrated Information System Architecture for Employer Branding and Recruiting
Chapter 17
Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain
The subject of our communication will be a better understanding of how the regulation between the on line HR designers and HR experts is built, and... Sample PDF
The Enrichment of the HR Intranet Linked to the Regulation's Process Between HR Actors
Chapter 18
Tanya Bondarouk, Vincent ter Horst, Sander Engbers
This research focuses on acceptance of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in medium sized organizations. We look at general SME’s in The... Sample PDF
Exploring Perceptions about the Use of e-HRM Tools in Medium Sized Organizations
Chapter 19
Loubna Tahssain, Mouna Zgheib
The changing business environment and increasing technology is redefining the role of the human resources function. Nowadays, corporations have to... Sample PDF
Perceived Performance of the Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) and Perceived Performance of the Management of Human Resources (HRM)
Chapter 20
Leon Welicki, Javier Piqueres Juan, Fernando Llorente Martin, Victor de Vega Hernandez
Employee life-cycle processes management (hiring new employees, changing their conditions, and dismissing them) is a critical task that has a big... Sample PDF
Employee Life-Cycle Process Management Improvement with Web-Enabled Workflow Systems
Chapter 21
Manel Guechtouli, Widad Guechtouli
Information Technologies (IT) seem to be affecting individuals and organizations’ communication and behaviors since many years now. This chapter is... Sample PDF
Information Technologies' Impact on Individual Learning Process: The Case of a Community of Practice
Chapter 22
Valéry Michaux
In a second step, this research shows that ICT poses threats but also offers opportunities for unions and trade unionism. The tensions between... Sample PDF
What are the Main Impacts of Internet and Information and Communication Technology on Unions and Trade Unionism? An Exploratory Research in Europe and North America
Chapter 23
Isabelle Parot
In this communication, the author attempts to answer the question of coordination in virtual teams (or remote teams). Virtual teams can result from... Sample PDF
Coordination of Virtual Teams: From Trust to Control
Chapter 24
Jeroen ter Heerdt, Tanya Bondarouk
In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our... Sample PDF
Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons
Chapter 25
Mitchell van Balen, Tanya Bondarouk
In this chapter the authors consider articles in professional literature regarding Human Resource Centers, with the goal to explore issues raised by... Sample PDF
HR Shared Service Centers: From Brand Management Towards Success
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