Three models structure the planning for technology integration into instruction. Institutional needs are assessed for three dimensions suggested in Gilbert’s, “Model of Human Competence.” The areas needing addressing are typically within instruction; therefore, the process steps of a generic instructional design model are used. Within designing for instruction, Bransford’s, “variables affecting learning,” are the focal points organizational planners need to consider in planning instruction. Instruction is framed as “faculty-as-learner centered instruction.” The variables are also a significant aspect of the content of instruction for faculty because faculty will use them in planning their own instruction integrated with technology.
Which technology is needed?
This is a wide-ranging question with conceptual as well as practical answers. For the purposes of institutional planning, the latter are more important; there are several notions of what technology is and which technology is wanted. Begin by considering the materials, tools, and processes that are useful for instruction. The technology used in instruction typically refers to computers or the software applications for computers.
The kinds of technology most institutional planners deal with include communication systems such as e-mail or messaging, and software applications for administrative use including student auditing systems. They also include instructional technologies that encompass software and hardware to facilitate learning. These include online learning management systems, individual audio devices, and online virtual worlds.
The purpose of identifying technology is to focus your work and to select that with which you will work. The result of this process is an answer to the question of which technology you want faculty to use in instruction. You know what is needed in general. Specify what is needed and set that as a standard expectation.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Technology: The materials, processes, or tools used to solve problems.
Integration: The condition in which technology is used in instruction so that without it instruction would not be possible as intended.
Dependency: The need for using technology in order to complete one’s work.
Learning Management System (LMS): A set of online processes focused on instruction that function together.
Subjective Norms: The personal belief that others have expectations that one should behave in a certain way. The belief influences one to behave that way.