Portable Handheld Language Learning from CALL MALL to PALL

Portable Handheld Language Learning from CALL MALL to PALL

Chaka Chaka (Walter Sisulu University, South Africa)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-994-6.ch033
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Abstract

This chapter explores aspects of portable handheld language learning that are likely to benefit many mobile assisted language learning (MALL) practitioners. Portable handheld language learning refers to mobile, virtual, and ubiquitous language learning mediated through mobile handheld devices. Currently, both computer assisted language learning (CALL) and MALL seem to dominate the act of language learning. Against this background the chapter first provides a brief review of CALL, highlighting CALL technologies helping mediate language learning. Second, it delineates features typifying e-Learning and contends that CALL is more closely linked to traditional e-Learning than MALL. Third, it provides empirical instances of MALL and argues that the future of language learning lies more with MALL and especially with pen assisted language learning (PALL) than with CALL. Finally, it maintains that an all-encompassing and multidimensional definition of mobile learning is necessary if MALL is to evolve into a mainstream virtual learning enterprise.
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Call Technologies And Language Learning

CALL technologies (programs, applications, and platforms) are central to how language learning is mediated in CALL environments. Most of these technologies are determined largely by language learning approaches and methods and their attendant pedagogical and theoretical philosophies. That is, they tend to reflect the prevailing philosophies and the dominant pedagogical and learning paradigms determining how language learning ought to be mediated. However, these technologies also tend to shape and influence pedagogical and learning paradigms (Kern & Warschauer, 2000). Against this backdrop, this section of the chapter outlines some of the CALL technologies and the way in which they facilitate language learning. Modeled on the typology of CALL programs, applications, and platforms delineated by Warschauer (1996) and Kern & Warschauer (2000), these technologies are categorized into three divisions: mainframe computer technologies; PC technologies; and multimedia networked computer technologies.

Mainframe Computer Technologies

These are the first-generation CALL technologies related to the mainframe computer informed by the behaviorist approach to CALL—the view that language learning and acquisition entailed repetitive habit formation patterns. Most of them (e.g., the audio language laboratory and the PLATO system) viewed the computer as a tutor/taskmaster mediating language learning between the learner and materials. Some of the software programs they used included drill and practice programs, grammar and tutorial programs, and language testing instruments. One prominent feature of these programs was the provision of immediate positive and negative feedback to learners on the structural accuracy of their responses (Davies & Walker, 1999-2007; Kern & Warschauer, 2000; Warschauer, 1996).

According to these mainframe computer technologies, language learning is mediated through:

  • Repetitive drilling of the same material (e.g., grammar, vocabulary, spelling)

  • Pronunciation and reading activities

  • Constant error analysis

  • Listening to audio recordings of the target speech

  • Reading, speaking, and writing

Some of the drill programs included, among other things, the following: Advanced Grammar Series; Accelerated English; Firsthand Access; Reading Adventure 1 – ESL; Gapmaster; English Vocabulary; Typing Tutor; and Testmaster (Davies & Walker, 1999-2007; Warschauer, 1996; Warschauer & Healy, 1998).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition: A technology using Java tools and programming language to develop programs for use on mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs.

Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs): Types of real-time Internet conferences enabling users to send e-mails or to manipulate objects in an imaginary world.

FLY Pentop Computer: A FLY is a pen-driven computer manufactured by LeapFrog Enterprises Inc. It is fitted with a battery, a computer brain, a software cartridge, a loudspeaker, and a headphone, and uses FLY paper.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS): A method for distributing news headlines, alerts, reminders, or other related Web content that are available for feeding from an online publisher to Web users.

PlayStation Portable (PSP): Sony’s portable game console.

LeapPa: LeapFrog’s family of platforms (e.g., LittleTouch LeapPad, My First LeapPad, Classic LeapPad, LeapPad Plus Writing, and Quantum LeapPad) consisting of audio software cartridges and corresponding interactive books.

Wikis: Special Web pages that can be immediately edited by any Web reader. A typical example is Wikipedia, a vast, multilingual encyclopaedia written, edited, and updated by any reader.

Multi-User-Domains Object Oriented (MOOs): Virtual worlds designed for language learning.

High-Meaning Words: According to the NEARStar program, high-meaning words are concrete, image-rich, high-interest words such as mommy, daddy, cookie, juice, or names of siblings, favorite toys, or familiar concepts. High-frequency words are a small number of words (the 100 most frequently used words) in the English language (e.g., of/for/from; was/saw; on/no; there/then/them/their; and when/where/what/with) (http://coe.west.asu.edu/students/wduzan/new_one/hfw1.htm). Phonetically regular words are words with one-to-one letter-sound correspondences such as /bat/; /cat/; /fat/; /pat/; /sat/; and so forth, that mostly display a regular consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) combination. Critical word factor (CWF) is an index of the number of new unique words per 100 running words of text falling outside a designated group of high frequency and phonetically regular words.

Nintendo DS: Nintendo’s (Japanese manufacturer) dual-screen handheld game console featuring touch screen and microphone controls.

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs): Small hybrid devices that combine a variety of computing functions such as a data organizer, a fax transmitter, e-mail, and a Web browser.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Norbert Pachler
Preface
Rita de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Patricia Lupion Torres
Acknowledgment
Rita de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Patricia Lupion Torres
Chapter 1
Pascual Pérez-Paredes, Maria Sánchez-Tornel
The research we report is a pilot study carried to test English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ reception of an electronic foreign language... Sample PDF
Understanding E-Skills in the FLT Context
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Chapter 2
Antônio Carlos Soares Martins, Junia de Carvalho Fidelis Braga
The discussions presented herein emerged from two empirical studies in progress:“Online Learning Communities in the Realm of Complexity” and “The... Sample PDF
The Emergence of Social Presence in Learning Communities
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Chapter 3
CALL as Action  (pages 39-52)
Vilson J. Leffa
The objective of this chapter is to offer a new approach for research in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It starts with the assumption... Sample PDF
CALL as Action
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Chapter 4
Vera Lucia Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva, Adail Sebastiao Rodrigues-Junior
This pedagogical and methodological chapter aims at contributing to increasing Web teachers’ awareness of the different ways teachers and students... Sample PDF
Investigating Interaction in an EFL Online Environment
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Chapter 5
Euline Cutrim Schmid
This chapter discusses the concept of integrated CALL by drawing upon data collected for a PhD research project that investigated the impact of... Sample PDF
Interactive Whiteboards and the Normalization of CALL
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Chapter 6
Alexandra Okada
This chapter presents new methodologies designed to facilitate language acquisition in open learning communities via open educational resources and... Sample PDF
OpenLearn and Knowledge Maps for Language Learning
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Chapter 7
Ria Hanewald
This chapter provides an overview of the field of digital objects and repositories. It introduces the concepts of digital objects and repositories... Sample PDF
Learning Objects: Projects, Potentials, and Pitfalls
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Chapter 8
Patrica Lupion Torres, Rita de Cassia Veiga Marriott, Andreia Ferreira Ramos
This chapter presents the experience of production and use of learning objects (LOs) for English-language learning at the Pontificia Universidade... Sample PDF
English-Language Teaching with Learning Objects at PUCPR
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Chapter 9
Zhuo Li, Feng Liu, Jeff Boyer
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the present use of e-gaming in language acquisition along with its potential and challenges. We review... Sample PDF
Amusing Minds for Joyful Learning through E-Gaming
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Chapter 10
Jowati Juhary
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A Non-Language Learning Courseware and its Challenges
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Chapter 11
Marcus Vinicius dos Santos, Isaac Woungang, Moses Nyongwa
The increasing importance of e-learning has been a boosting element for the emergence of Internet-based educational tools. As we move into the... Sample PDF
A Pliant-Based Software Tool for Courseware Development
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Chapter 12
Aysegül Daloglu, Meltem Baturay, Soner Yildirim
This chapter outlines how the constructivist approach can be implemented in Web-based vocabulary teaching, characteristics of effective Web-based... Sample PDF
Designing a Constructivist Vocabulary Learning Material
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Chapter 13
Yasunori Nishina
This chapter suggests an effective method for lexical studies using Moodle within the framework of data-driven learning based on parallel... Sample PDF
A Lexical Study Based on Corpora, DDL, and Moodle
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Chapter 14
Vander Viana, Sonia Zyngier
Like the advent of the telescope, computers today can provide ways of looking into language patterns that cannot be seen with the naked eye. From... Sample PDF
EFL through the Digital Glass of Corpus Linguistics
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Chapter 15
Jing Wang
This chapter introduces a series of studies carried out with intermediate learners of Chinese regarding the reading of authentic e-materials with... Sample PDF
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Chapter 16
Margaret Murphy, Cristina Poyatos Matas
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Chapter 17
Neny Isharyanti
Studies in computer-mediated communication (CMC) have shown that it has the potential to provide opportunities for ESL learners to actively... Sample PDF
Interactional Modifications in Internet Chatting
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Chapter 18
Sedat Akayoglu, Arif Altun
This chapter aims at describing the patterns of negotiation of meaning functions in text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication by using... Sample PDF
The Functions of Negotiation of Meaning in Text-Based CMC
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Chapter 19
Esrom Adriano Irala, Patrica Lupion Torres
This chapter belongs to the context of the computer-mediated communication (CMC) for language teaching and learning. Since the introduction of this... Sample PDF
The Use of the CMC Tool AMANDA in the Teaching of English
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Chapter 20
Christine Rosalia, Lorena Llosa
This chapter reports on an instrument that was developed to formatively assess the quality of feedback that second language students give to one... Sample PDF
Assessing the Quality of Online Peer Feedback in L2 Writing
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Chapter 21
Betty Rose Facer, M’hammed Abdous, Margaret M. Camarena
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Chapter 22
Mahieddine Djoudi
The use of the mobile devices in language learning has been developed at a very high speed in the last years. Thus, we are witnessing many research... Sample PDF
Listening Comprehension of Languages with Mobile Devices
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Chapter 23
Huw Jarvis
This chapter reports on a quantitative study that examines how language students make use of an extensive range of computer-based materials (CBMs)... Sample PDF
Computers and Independent Study: Student Perspectives
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Chapter 24
Renata Chylinski, Ria Hanewald
This chapter reports on a study undertaken on the impact of pedagogical and technological innovations in language teaching and language learning... Sample PDF
Creating Supportive Environments for CALL Teacher Autonomy
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Chapter 25
Mar Gutiérrez-Colon Plana
Many language teachers, students, and institutions of virtual learning environments are well acquainted with the feelings of loneliness and... Sample PDF
Frustration in Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 26
Sarah Guth, Corrado Petrucco
This chapter describes how the social software tools that characterize Web 2.0, such as wikis and blogs, can be used as a valid substitute for more... Sample PDF
Social Software and Language Acquisition
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Chapter 27
Bryan Carter, Dayton Elseth
Within academia, distance learning as an approach to education has its share of skeptics. Regardless of how some feel about the methodology, it has... Sample PDF
The Usefulness of Second Life for Language Learning
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Chapter 28
Irene Mamakou
Interest in the integration of language learning with knowledge/content construction is growing around the world. In this line, an instructional... Sample PDF
Project-Based Instruction for ESP in Higher Education
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Chapter 29
Ma Camino Bueno Alastuey
The adaptation to the European Space of Higher Education and to the new demands of the labor market has produced a shift in university education... Sample PDF
WebCT Design and Users' Perceptions in English for Agriculture
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Chapter 30
Heli Simon, Päivö Laine, Ann Seppänen, Ana Barata, Carlos Vaz de Carvalho
This chapter presents the tutoring methodology adopted in an e-learning language course for students in vocational training and higher education as... Sample PDF
The LAFEC Experience for Language Skills Acquisition
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Chapter 31
Christian Swertz, Rosa Schultz, Katharina Toifl
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Language Teaching in Live Online Environments
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Chapter 32
Astrid Gesche
This chapter provides a basis for thinking about the dynamics and boundaries of foreign language learning in virtual learning communities of the... Sample PDF
Adapting to Virtual Third-Space Language Learning Futures
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Chapter 33
Chaka Chaka
This chapter explores aspects of portable handheld language learning that are likely to benefit many mobile assisted language learning (MALL)... Sample PDF
Portable Handheld Language Learning from CALL MALL to PALL
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About the Contributors