Privacy and Trust in Online Interactions

Privacy and Trust in Online Interactions

Leszek Lilien (Western Michigan University, USA) and Bharat Bhargava (Purdue University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 38
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-012-7.ch005
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Abstract

Any interaction—from a simple transaction to a complex collaboration—requires an adequate level of trust between interacting parties. Trust includes a conviction that one’s privacy is protected by the other partner. This is as true in online transactions as in social systems. The recognition of the importance of privacy is growing since privacy guarantees are absolutely essential for realizing the goal of pervasive computing. This chapter presents the role of trust and privacy in interactions; emphasizing their interplay. In particular; it shows how one’s degree of privacy can be traded for a gain in the level of trust perceived by the interaction partner. After a brief overview of related research; the idea and mechanisms of trading privacy for trust are explored. Conclusions and future trends in dealing with privacy and trust problems complement the chapter.
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Introduction

Any interaction—from a simple transaction to a complex collaboration—can be successful only if an adequate level of trust exists between interacting entities. One of the more important components of trust of an entity in its interaction partner is its reliance that the partner is both willing and able to protect entity’s privacy. This is as true in the cyberspace as in social systems.

The need for privacy is broadly recognized by individuals, businesses, the government, the computer industry, and academic researchers. Examples are shown in Table 1. The growing recognition of the importance of privacy is motivated not only by users’ sensitivity about their personal data. Other factors include business losses due to privacy violations, and enactments of federal and state privacy laws. Even more important, the quest for the promised land of pervasive computing will fail if adequate privacy guarantees are not provided.

Table 1.
Recognition of the need for privacy by different entities
Recognition of the need for privacy by individuals (Cranor, Reagle, & Ackerman, 1999)
• 99% unwilling to reveal their SSN
• 18% unwilling to reveal their favorite TV show
Recognition of the need for privacy by businesses
• Online consumers worrying about revealing personal data held back $15 billion in online revenue in 2001 (Kelley, 2001)
Recognition of the need for privacy by the federal government
• Privacy Act of 1974 for federal agencies (Privacy Act, 2004)
• Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) (Summary HIPAA, 2003; Mercuri, 2004)
Recognition of the need for privacy by computer industry research (examples)
• IBM—incl. Privacy Research Institute (IBM Privacy, 2007)
• Topics include: pseudonymity for e-commerce, EPA, and EPAL—enterprise privacy architecture and language, RFID privacy, privacy-preserving video surveillance, federated identity management (for enterprise federations), privacy-preserving data mining and privacy-preserving mining of association rules, hippocratic (privacy-preserving) databases, online privacy monitoring
• Microsoft Research—including Trustworthy Computing Initiative (Trustworthy Computing, 2003)
• The biggest research challenges: reliability/security/privacy/business Integrity
• Topics include: DRM—digital rights management (incl. watermarking surviving photo editing attacks), software rights protection, intellectual property and content protection, database privacy and privacy-preserving data mining, anonymous e-cash, anti-spyware
Recognition of the need for privacy by academic researchers (examples)
• Trust negotiation with controlled release of private credentials, privacy-trust tradeoff
• Trust negotiation languages
• Privacy metrics
• Anonymity and k-anonymity
• Privacy-preserving data mining and privacy-preserving database testing
• Privacy-preserving data dissemination
• Preserving location privacy in pervasive computing, and privacy-preserving location-based routing and services in networks
• Trust negotiation with controlled release of private credentials
• Genomic privacy

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Kuanchin Chen, Adam Fadlalla
Chapter 1
Andrew Pauxtis
What began as simple homepages that listed favorite Web sites in the early 1990’s have grown into some of the most sophisticated, enormous... Sample PDF
Google: Technological Convenience vs. Technological Intrusion
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Chapter 2
Angelena M. Secor
In this chapter, consumer online privacy legal issues are identified and discussed. Followed by the literature review in consumer online privacy... Sample PDF
A Taxonomic View of Consumer Online Privacy Legal Issues, Legislation, and Litigation
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Chapter 3
Hy Sockel, Louis K. Falk
There are many potential threats that come with conducting business in an online environment. Management must find a way to neutralize or at least... Sample PDF
Online Privacy, Vulnerabilities, and Threats: A Manager's Perspective
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Chapter 4
Thejs Willem Jansen
Governments and large companies are increasingly relying on information technology to provide enhanced services to the citizens and customers and... Sample PDF
Practical Privacy Assessments
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Chapter 5
Leszek Lilien, Bharat Bhargava
Any interaction—from a simple transaction to a complex collaboration—requires an adequate level of trust between interacting parties. Trust includes... Sample PDF
Privacy and Trust in Online Interactions
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Chapter 6
Huong Ha, Ken Coghill
The current measures to protect e-consumers’ privacy in Australia include (i) regulation/legislation; (ii) guidelines; (iii) codes of practice; and... Sample PDF
Current Measures to Protect E-Consumers' Privacy in Australia
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Chapter 7
Anil Gurung, Anurag Jain
Individuals are generally concerned about their privacy and may withhold from disclosing their personal information while interacting with online... Sample PDF
Antecedents of Online Privacy Protection Behavior: Towards an Integrative Model
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Chapter 8
Alan Rea, Kuanchin Chen
Protecting personal information while Web surfing has become a struggle. This is especially the case when transactions require a modicum of trust to... Sample PDF
Privacy Control and Assurance: Does Gender Influence Online Information Exchange?
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Chapter 9
Bernadette H. Schell, Thomas J. Holt
This chapter looks at the literature—myths and realities—surrounding the demographics, psychological predispositions, and social/behavioral patterns... Sample PDF
A Profile of the Demographics, Psychological Predispositions, and Social/Behavioral Patterns of Computer Hacker Insiders and Outsiders
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Chapter 10
Chiung-wen ("Julia") Hsu
This chapter introduces a situational paradigm as a means of studying online privacy. It argues that data subjects are not always opponent to data... Sample PDF
Privacy or Performance Matters on the Internet: Revisiting Privacy Toward a Situational Paradigm
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Chapter 11
Tom S. Chan
While delivering content via the Internet can be efficient and economical, content owners risk losing control of their intellectual property. Any... Sample PDF
Online Consumer Privacy and Digital Rights Management Systems
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Chapter 12
Betty J. Parker
Marketing practices have always presented challenges for consumers seeking to protect their privacy. This chapter discusses the ways in which the... Sample PDF
Online Privacy and Marketing: Current Issues for Consumers and Marketers
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Chapter 13
Suhong Li
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the current status of online privacy policies of Fortune 100 Companies. It was found that 94% of the... Sample PDF
An Analysis of Online Privacy Policies of Fortune 100 Companies
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Chapter 14
Andy Chiou
In this chapter, the authors will briefly discuss some cross cultural concerns regarding Internet privacy. The authors believe that due to the cross... Sample PDF
Cross Cultural Perceptions on Privacy in the United States, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Taiwan
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Chapter 15
Sean Lancaster
Biometrics is an application of technology to authenticate users’ identities through the measurement of physiological or behavioral patterns. The... Sample PDF
Biometric Controls and Privacy
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Chapter 16
G. Scott Erickson
This chapter focuses on the specific issue of the federal Freedom of Information Act and associated state and local freedom of information laws.... Sample PDF
Government Stewardship of Online Information: FOIA Requirements and Other Considerations
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Chapter 17
Charles O’Mahony
This chapter will discuss the legal framework for consumer and data protection in Europe. Central to this discussion will be the law of the European... Sample PDF
The Legal Framework for Data and Consumer Protection in Europe
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Chapter 18
Karin Mika
This chapter provides an overview of law relating to online and Internet medical practice, data protection, and consumer information privacy. It... Sample PDF
Cybermedicine, Telemedicine, and Data Protection in the United States
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Chapter 19
J. Michael Tarn
This chapter explores the current status and practices of online privacy protection in Japan. Since the concept of privacy in Japan is different... Sample PDF
Online Privacy Protection in Japan: The Current Status and Practices
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About the Contributors