Quality Improvement in Automotive Software Engineering Using a Model-Based Approach

Quality Improvement in Automotive Software Engineering Using a Model-Based Approach

Tibor Farkas (Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS, Germany)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-006-6.ch015
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Abstract

Premium quality and innovation are the cornerstones of the leading positions of car manufacturers and suppliers in the world market. The permanently increasing complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of automotive software running on embedded electronic control units, places higher demands on quality assurance for the future. Quality cannot be implemented into software on embedded control units after their development. Methods for defects detection have to be constituted to automatically stop development to fix a problem before the defect continues downstream. In addition preventive actions have to be taken in respect of front-loading quality and reliability. An automatic and tool independent check of custom development rules, quality standards and enterprise wide guidelines can support the quality assurance process in the development of automotive control software. In the domain of automotive software engineering there is a lack of automated checking for standard conformance. Especially, a formal and tool independent notation of rules to follow is missing. In this chapter, the model-based design of automotive vehicle functions is taken as an example to show how textual rules describing development standards to be met can be transformed into a formal notation using the open standards Meta Object Facility and Object Constraint Language. Thereafter these rules can be checked automatically. The feasibility of this approach is shown by a software demonstrator.
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1. Introduction

Premium quality and innovation are the cornerstones of the leading positions of car manufacturers and suppliers in the world market. Quality assurance starts in early development phases and is a joint responsibility of both, the car manufacturers and their suppliers. The use of electronic control units (ECU) has grown rapidly in modern vehicles. This has gone along with an increase in variety and complexity of these electronic systems and their networking over different busses. New functions are preferably implemented in embedded software that is distributed on a rising number of networked control devices (VDI, 2005). Having nowadays approximately 10 to 20 different ECUs on a single vehicle network, the integration of software from many different suppliers is a difficult task (Mercer, 2001).

X-by-wire systems are an upcoming technology in the automotive industry that replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces. They constitute the basis for vehicle control systems and assistance systems that support and relieve the driver during his driving assignment. Purely mechanical or hydraulic systems will be replaced by mechatronic systems. They are integrated into the vehicle environment intelligently. As a result, software will become a technology that is critical for the business competition especially in the automotive manufacturing domain (Jackman, 2005). High demands for quality of these systems and the great complexity as well as the rapidly growing interaction between single subsystems lead to strong requirements on development methods and development tools. As an example, Figure 1 shows the increasing number of software inside telephone-hands-free equipment (an automotive telematics application) over a period of 10 years (Form, 2006).

Figure 1:

Amount of embedded software in an automotive telephone hands-free equipment over a period of ten years. (Form, 2006)

While simple functions like displaying the digits were realized on an embedded display device, nowadays rich functions such as voice dialing and phone book synchronization are controlled by embedded software.

Coping with future system complexity under stringent quality requirements on the one hand and the expected lead in innovation on the other hand are important factors of business success for automotive manufacturers and their suppliers (Liggesmeyer, 2005). Nevertheless, the quality losses of the electronic devices in the vehicle are still engraving. According to the current breakdown statistic (ADAC, 2007) of the year 2006 published by the ADAC (General German Automobile Association) up to 70% of breakdowns have been caused by failures occurred in the area of the electrical units, connections and software (see Figure 2). Also the other portions are influenced by electrical units (e.g. Injection System).

Figure 2:

Largest proportion of the failures is situated in the area of electrical units, connections and software. (ADAC, 2007)

Quality cannot be implemented or tested into embedded control software after their development. Therefore it is essential to support aspects of quality and reliability by constructive measures in the early phases of the V-Model. The V-Model is a general process model (also further staged versions like V-Model XT) mostly used for embedded software development in the German automotive industry (VModel, 1997). Unfortunately the specification of the V-Model does not offer a good mechanism for quality assurance. Because it is too generally defined, there is no support for the special needs and the context of the target automotive domain. Therefore car manufacturers and suppliers use other process models and standards for quality assurance, which are presented in the following section.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Colin Atkinson
Preface
Jörg Rech, Christian Bunse
Acknowledgment
Jörg Rech, Christian Bunse
Chapter 1
Ariadi Nugroho
Many studies have been carried out to investigate what makes up good quality software. Some of the early models that define the quality of software... Sample PDF
Managing the Quality of UML Models in Practice
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Chapter 2
Teade Punter, Jeroen Voeten
This chapter argues that embedded systems design faces several challenges of which late integration and the difference in development productivity... Sample PDF
Quality in Model Driven Engineering
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Chapter 3
Examples and Evidence  (pages 57-77)
Sowmya Karunakaran
This chapter aims at highlighting the increased development productivity and quality that can be achieved by Model Driven Software Development... Sample PDF
Examples and Evidence
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Chapter 4
Anna E. Bobkowska
Successful realization of the model-driven software development visions in practice requires high quality models. This chapter focuses on the... Sample PDF
Integrating Quality Criteria and Methods of Evaluation for Software Models
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Chapter 5
Heiko Koziolek, Steffen Becker, Ralf Reussner, Jens Happe
Techniques from model-driven software development are useful to analyse the performance of a software architecture during early development stages.... Sample PDF
Evaluating Performance of Software Architecture Models with the Palladio Component Model
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Chapter 6
Esther Guerra, Juan de Lara, Paloma Díaz
The goal of this work is to facilitate the task of integrating measurement and redesign tools in modelling environments for Domain Specific Visual... Sample PDF
Integrating Measures and Redesigns in the Definition of Domain Specific Visual Languages
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Chapter 7
Measuring Models  (pages 147-169)
Martin Monperrus, Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Joël Champeau, Brigitte Hoeltzener
Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is an approach to software development that uses models as primary artifacts, from which code, documentation and... Sample PDF
Measuring Models
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Chapter 8
Tom Mens, Gabriele Taentzer, Dirk Müller
In this chapter, we explore the emerging research domain of model-driven software refactoring. Program refactoring is a proven technique that aims... Sample PDF
Model-Driven Software Refactoring
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Chapter 9
Michael Wahler
Class models are typically specified at a high level of abstraction and subsequently refined with textual constraints to obtain higher maturity... Sample PDF
A Pattern Approach to Increasing the Maturity Level of Class Models
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Chapter 10
Miroslaw Staron
Introducing Model Driven Software Development (MDSD) into industrial projects is rarely done as a “green field” development. The usual path is to... Sample PDF
Transitioning from Code-Centric to Model-Driven Industrial Projects: Empirical Studies in Industry and Academia
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Chapter 11
Antonio Bucchiarone, Davide Di Ruscio, Henry Muccini, Patrizio Pelliccione
When engineering complex and distributed software and hardware systems (increasingly used in many sectors, such as manufacturing, aerospace... Sample PDF
From Requirements to Java Code: An Architecture-Centric Approach for Producing Quality Systems
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Chapter 12
Silvia Abrahão, Marcela Genero, Emilio Insfran, José Ángel Carsí, Isidro Ramos, Mario Piattini
Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) is a software engineering approach that promotes the use of models and model transformations as primary development... Sample PDF
Quality-Driven Model Transformations: From Requirements to UML Class Diagrams
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Chapter 13
Pankaj Kamthan
As software systems become ever more interactive, there is a need to model the services they provide to users, and use cases are one abstract way of... Sample PDF
A Framework for Understanding and Addressing the Semiotic Quality of Use Case Models
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Chapter 14
Stefan Wagner, Florian Deissenboeck, Stefan Teuchert, Jean-François Girard
In model-driven software development as much as in classical code-driven development maintenance costs make up the bulk of the total life cycle... Sample PDF
Assuring Maintainability in Model-Driven Development of Embedded Systems
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Chapter 15
Tibor Farkas
Premium quality and innovation are the cornerstones of the leading positions of car manufacturers and suppliers in the world market. The permanently... Sample PDF
Quality Improvement in Automotive Software Engineering Using a Model-Based Approach
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Chapter 16
Claus Pahl, Boškovic Marko, Ronan Barrett, Wilhelm Hasselbring
Service engineering and service-oriented architecture as an integration and platform technology is a recent approach to software systems... Sample PDF
Quality-Aware Model-Driven Service Engineering
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Chapter 17
Sven Abels, Wilhelm Hasselbring, Niels Streekmann, Mathias Uslar
This chapter introduces model-driven integration in complex information systems by giving two practical examples. It relies on the experiences the... Sample PDF
Model-Driven Integration in Complex Information Systems: Experiences from Two Scenarios
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Chapter 18
Jane M.C. Oh
This chapter examines the experience of using model-based design in the context of development of critical software. The software is being developed... Sample PDF
High-Quality Software Models of the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope
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About the Contributors