This chapter provides insight into various areas within the medical field that strive to take advantage of different data mining techniques in order to realize the full potential of their knowledge assets. Specifically, this is done by discussing many of the limitations associated with conventional methods of diagnosis and showing how data mining can be used to improve these methods. Comparative analyses of different techniques associated with various areas within the medical field are outlined in order to identify the right technique for particular medical specialties. Furthermore, suggestions are provided to appropriately utilize the various data mining techniques thereby leading to effective and efficient knowledge management and knowledge utilization. In this chapter we highlight the potential of data mining in improving the exploratory as well as the predictive capabilities of conventional diagnostic methods in medical science.