Various real-life environments are exceptionally harsh for signal propagation, rendering well-known trilateration techniques (e.g. GPS) unsuitable for localization. Alternative proximity-based techniques, based on placing sensors near every location of interest, can be fairly complicated to set up, and are often sensitive to sensor failures or corruptions. The authors propose a different paradigm for robust localization based on identifying codes, a concept borrowed from the information theory literature. This chapter describes theoretical and practical considerations in designing and implementing such a localization infrastructure, together with experimental data supporting the potential benefits of the proposed technique.