The Role of Error Correction in Online Exchanges

The Role of Error Correction in Online Exchanges

Margarita Vinagre (Antonio de Nebrija University, Spain) and Maria Lera (Antonio de Nebrija University, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-895-6.ch019
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Abstract

In this chapter we analyze the role that error correction plays in fostering language development via e-mail tandem exchanges. In order to do so, we present the findings of a year-long e-mail exchange between specialist learners of English at Nebrija University in Madrid and non-specialist learners of Spanish at Trinity College Dublin during the academic year 2005-2006. Using the results of qualitative research, we present data from the students’ e-mail content regarding different aspects of error correction, such as type of corrections, conventions and use of metalanguage. The findings of this study suggest that corrective feedback, especially when it takes the form of remediation, can lead to language development in on-line exchanges since it encourages recycling of errors in later e-mail messages.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Autonomy in Language Learning: A capacity to take charge of, or take responsibility for one’s own learning. Therefore, autonomy involves abilities and attitudes that people possess and can develop to various degrees.

Synchronous Communication: Communication occurs when learners communicate in real time, either in a face-to-face situation, on the telephone or using the Internet. MOOs, IRC (Internet relay chat), chatting, audio and videoconferencing are all forms of synchronous communication.

Tandem Learning: A mode of learning in which you work together with a partner from another country in order to learn each other’s native language. It is based on the principles of autonomy and reciprocity and it can take place either face-to-face or at a distance (either in synchronous or asynchronous forms of communication).

Asynchronous Communication: Learners do not communicate in real time. Rather, they send messages to each other and collect messages when it is convenient to them. E-mail, letter writing, and voicemail are all forms of asynchronous communication.

Positive Feedback: Tells the learner what linguistic features in the input are possible in the target language

Negative (Corrective) Feedback: Tells the learner what linguistic features in the input are not possible in the target language.

Collaborative Learning: A way of learning in which students at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal. Tandem learning is a type of collaborative learning.

Reciprocity: Refers to the partners’ mutual support in the learning process; both partners should contribute equally to their work together and benefit to the same extent.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Andrew Lian
Acknowledgment
Felicia Zhang, Beth Barber
Chapter 1
Gabriella Brussino, Cathy Gunn
A theoretically driven and technology enhanced approach to second language acquisition at beginners level is illustrated through the description of... Sample PDF
Australasian Language Learners and Italian Web Sites: A Profitable Learning Partnership?
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Chapter 2
Michael Fitze
This chapter reports on a comparative study of face-to-face (FTF) and written electronic (WE) conferences as pre-writing activities in the English... Sample PDF
Assessing the Benefit of Prewriting Conferences on Drafts
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Chapter 3
Joel Bloch, Cathryn Crosby
This chapter discusses the use of blogging in a beginning level academic writing course. Blogging was used in this writing course both as a means of... Sample PDF
Blogging and Academic Writing Development
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Chapter 4
Robert Ariew, Gulcan Erçetin, Susan Cooledge
This chapter introduces second language reading in hypertext/hypermedia environments. It discusses the development of a template to annotate reading... Sample PDF
Second Language Reading in Hypertext Environments
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Chapter 5
Leo Kam-hung Yu
The consciousness-raising approach to grammar teaching aims to provide opportunities for students to identify some grammatical components through... Sample PDF
Application of Online Questionnaires in Grammar Teaching
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Chapter 6
Diane Huot, France H. Lemonnier, Josiane Hamers
This chapter presents the key findings of a longitudinal study conducted with secondary school students over a period of five years to determine... Sample PDF
ICT and Language Learning at Secondary School
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Chapter 7
David Barr
This chapter reports on the results of a study undertaken to gauge what difference computer technology makes to grammar learning. Unlike other... Sample PDF
Computer-Enhanced Grammar Teaching
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Chapter 8
Luba V. Iskold
This study examines the effects of listening tasks performed by second-semester learners of Russian. Two video viewing conditions are investigated... Sample PDF
Research-Based Listening Tasks for Video Comprehension
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Chapter 9
Linda Jones
This study addresses the views of 9 students on the amount of invested mental effort (Salomon, 1983a) needed to effectively process multimedia... Sample PDF
Invested Mental Effort in an Aural Multimedia Environment
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Chapter 10
Kenneth Reeder, Jon Shapiro, Margaret Early, Maureen Kendrick, Jane Wakefield
This chapter describes the first year of research on the effectiveness of automated speech recognition (ASR) for ESL learners in the early school... Sample PDF
A Computer-Based Reading Tutor for Young Language Learners
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Chapter 11
Eva Lindgren, Marie Stevenson, Kirk P.H. Sullivan
In this chapter an instructional format, Peer-Based Intervention (PBI) using computer keystroke logging is investigated as a computer technology to... Sample PDF
Supporting the Reflective Language Learner with Computer Keystroke Logging
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Chapter 12
Jörg Roche, Julia Scheller
The present study is situated in the context of cognitive aspects of language processing as it focuses on the learning and teaching of grammar in... Sample PDF
Grammar Animations and Cognition
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Chapter 13
Hazel Morton, Nancie Davidson, Mervyn Jack
This chapter describes the design of a speech interactive CALL program and its evaluation with end users. The program, SPELL (Spoken Electronic... Sample PDF
Evaluation of a Speech Interactive CALL System
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Chapter 14
Maliwan Buranapatana, Felicia Zhang
This chapter reports on a study which evaluates the effect of a language teaching approach called the Somatically-Enhanced Approach (Zhang, 2006)in... Sample PDF
Pedagogy Meets Technology in the Somatically-Enhanced Approach
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Chapter 15
Xinchun Wang
This study explores the effect of two training paradigms for learning Mandarin tones in pedagogical contexts. Eighteen beginning learners of Chinese... Sample PDF
Training for Learning Mandarin Tones
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Chapter 16
Nattaya Puakpong
This chapter examines the effect of an individualized Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Listening Comprehension Program (MMExplore) on students’... Sample PDF
An Evaluation of a Listening Comprehension Program
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Chapter 17
Terence C. Ahern
Authentic experiences encourage the student to cognitively engage the content by actively trying to make sense and to integrate the experience. This... Sample PDF
CMC for Language Acquisition
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Chapter 18
Shannon Johnston
A task-based approach to e-mail provides a sound pedagogical orientation for real language interactions between learners and native speakers. The... Sample PDF
A Task-Based Design for Integrating E-Mail with FL Pedagogy
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Chapter 19
Margarita Vinagre, Maria Lera
In this chapter we analyze the role that error correction plays in fostering language development via e-mail tandem exchanges. In order to do so, we... Sample PDF
The Role of Error Correction in Online Exchanges
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Chapter 20
Stella K. Hadjistassou
This study reports on a culturally-transforming group activity using asynchronously-mediated forums on the “discussion board” of Blackboard Academic... Sample PDF
Emerging Feedback in Two Asynchronous ESL Writing Forums
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Chapter 21
Martina Möllering, Markus Ritter
One key theme in the area of computer-assisted language learning has been the potential of computermediated communication (CMC) for the language... Sample PDF
CMC and Intercultural Learning
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Chapter 22
Claudia Finkbeiner, Markus Knierim
Research on CALL environments that explicitly focuses on the development of strategic competence is almost non-existent. This chapter reports on an... Sample PDF
Developing L2 Strategic Competence Online
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Chapter 23
Faridah Pawan, Senom T. Yalcin, Xiaojing Kou
This research is an exploratory study of student variables that mediate collaborative engagement in online discussions. More directly, the research... Sample PDF
Interventions and Student Factors in Collaboration
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Chapter 24
Rolf Kreyer
Although corpus linguistic methods and research have had a considerable impact on language teaching in the last few decades, the corpus is still... Sample PDF
Corpora in the Classroom and Beyond
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Chapter 25
Angela Chambers, Martin Wynne
Since the early 1990s, researchers have been investigating the effectiveness of corpora as a resource in language learning, mostly creating their... Sample PDF
Sharing Corpus Resources in Language Learning
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Chapter 26
Terence Patrick Murphy
This chapter addresses the question of how to measure the student’s English as a second language (ESL) textual sophistication. It suggests that the... Sample PDF
The Texture of Inefficiently Self-Regulating ESL Systems
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Chapter 27
Hayo Reinders, Noemí Lázaro
This chapter discusses the results of a study into the use of technology in the specific pedagogical setting of self-access centers. As part of the... Sample PDF
Technology in Support of Self-Access Pedagogy
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Chapter 28
Stephen Alan Shucart, Tsutomu Mishina, Mamoru Takahashi, Tetsuya Enokizono
Unlike most CALL labs that are purchased from a vender and employ either generic or commercial CALL software and technologically untrained teachers... Sample PDF
The CALL Lab as a Facilitator for Autonomous Learning
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Chapter 29
Junichi Azuma
This chapter describes how the synthesized English speech sound generated by a commercial TTS engine (Pentax “VoiceText”) is utilized within a CALL... Sample PDF
Applying TTS Technology to Foreign Language Teaching
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Chapter 30
Yuko Kinoshita
This chapter presents a descriptive report on a video chat project undertaken in early 2006 at the University of Canberra, Australia using iChat.... Sample PDF
Using an Audio-Video Chat Program in Language Learning
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About the Contributors