Social Networking Sites and Critical Language Learning

Social Networking Sites and Critical Language Learning

Andy Halvorsen (Nagoya University of Commerce & Business, Japan)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-190-2.ch013
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Abstract

This chapter looks at the potential use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for educators and second language learners. It views SNSs broadly through the lens of Critical Language Learning (CLL) and looks at specific issues of identity formation, student empowerment, learner autonomy, and critical literacy as they relate to the use of SNSs. This chapter also reports the results of an initial project to make use of the MySpace social networking site for Japanese learners of English. It is hoped that this chapter will raise awareness of some of the complex issues surrounding the use of SNSs by language learners and that it will lead to further research and consideration of these issues.
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Introduction

As technological innovations of all kinds push our society forward at ever increasing speeds, the basic nature of social interaction is being transformed. Social networks are now being formed in ways that no one would have imagined 50 years ago. Currently at the heart of this phenomenon is the massive rise in popularity of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) like MySpace, Mixi, Facebook and others; sites designed specifically for the purpose of developing and sustaining interconnectivity amongst users. Though English may currently be the language favored by the majority of users of SNSs, it certainly does not have a monopoly on this trend. The SNS Mixi, for example, which functions exclusively in Japanese, currently has over 11 million registered users. Indeed, according to recent global trends in blog posting, the Japanese language has actually surpassed English in regards to the number of blog posts per language, with Japanese now generating 37% of the total contribution to the blogosphere (Sertan, 2007; Sifry, 2007). The global ubiquity of SNSs means that second language learners can easily find themselves in contact with native speakers anywhere in the world. Clearly the popularity of the sites, combined with the opportunities for meaningful interaction that they present, potentially make them a powerful platform for second language acquisition, and, in fact, research into how best to take advantage of this opportunity is beginning (Godwin-Jones, 2006; O’Hanlon, 2007; Murray, 2005).

There are complex questions to be considered however; questions that relate specifically to changes in the meaning of identity and the forms of social interaction that occur online. How, for example, can the complexities of second language identity formation be interwoven into one’s online identity formation? Or, what new types of literacies are required for decoding and interpreting information in multi-modal, peer to peer environments like SNSs? (Dieu, Campbell, & Ammann, 2006). Could we also consider an analysis from a constructivist perspective? Social constructivism, particularly as it relates to education, places primary importance on the need for mediation and social interaction in the development of meaning (Pasfield-Neofitou, 2007; Vygotsky, 1978). Web 2.0 technologies are, after all, primarily about the construction of meaning through interaction between and amongst users. Some research recently has looked to constructivism and in particular Vygotskian social constructivism as a way to interpret and assess some of the potential benefits of the type of peer editing and collaboration that can take place on wikis and SNSs (Lavin & Claro, 2005). This chapter will attempt to lay a framework for a discussion of these questions and others by looking at SNSs and other associated Web 2.0 technologies from a Critical Language Learning (CLL) perspective and by considering a recent case study looking specifically at the use of the MySpace SNS to facilitate the acquisition of English amongst Japanese university students. Specifically, this case study had three primary objectives:

  • 1.

    To assess Japanese students’ interest level and motivation regarding the use of SNSs to improve their English skills.

  • 2.

    To consider the use of the MySpace SNS through the framework of the issues of identity formation, learner autonomy, critical literacy, and student empowerment (Pennycook, 1997).

  • 3.

    To map out potential difficulties and opportunities for further research into the potential use of SNSs for English learners in Japan.

This case study and its associated research relating to CLL and the potential applications for SNSs in the second language classroom is one of the first of its kind, particularly in a specifically Japanese context. It is hoped, however, that this chapter will lead to further discussions and considerations of the relationship between the changing nature of social interaction in the age of the Internet, and the potential opportunities and challenges that these changes present to the second language learner.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Identity Formation: In the second language learning context, identity formation refers to the development of one’s unique identity in the target language. Identity formation can also relate to the development of on-line identity through social networking sites like MySpace.

Critical Language Learning (CLL): CLL is a broad term for an approach that focuses on the social implications of second language learning. This approach is characterized by an interest in issues like student empowerment, identity formation, critical literacy and learner autonomy.

MySpace: MySpace is one of many social networking sites currently in popular use. In June of 2007, MySpace was the most visited social networking site in the world with over 114 million users.

E-Literacy: E-literacy has been defined in a variety of ways but it generally relates to the skill set required to make efficient use of all of the materials, tools, and resources that are available online.

Autonomy: For second language learners, autonomy has to do with the degree of independence that learners have from traditional teacher fronted classroom approaches and their ability to advance and progress as independent learners.

Empowerment: Within the context of critical language learning, student empowerment is concerned with providing students with access to the tools that they need to become independent and autonomous learners.

TOEIC: The Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) is a highly regarded English language testing system that is especially prominent in Asia and taken by almost 5 million people throughout the world each year. The test consists of a listening and reading component, to which a speaking element has recently been added.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Mark Warschauer
Preface
Michael Thomas
Acknowledgment
Michael Thomas
Chapter 1
Michael Vallance, Kay Vallance, Masahiro Matsui
The grand narrative of educational policy statements lack clear guidelines on Information Communications Technology (ICT) integration. A review of... Sample PDF
Criteria for the Implementation of Learning Technologies
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Chapter 2
Mark Pegrum
This chapter discusses the application of a range of Web 2.0 technologies to language education. It argues that Web 2.0 is fundamentally about... Sample PDF
Communicative Networking and Linguistic Mashups on Web 2.0
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Chapter 3
Bernd Rüschoff
Current thinking in SLA methodology favours knowledge construction rather than simple instructivist learning as an appropriate paradigm for language... Sample PDF
Output-Oriented Language Learning With Digital Media
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Chapter 4
Infoxication 2.0  (pages 60-79)
Elena Benito-Ruiz
This chapter reviews the issue of information overload, introducing the concept of “infoxication 2.0” as one of the main downsides to Web 2.0. The... Sample PDF
Infoxication 2.0
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Chapter 5
Margaret Rasulo
The aim of this chapter is to discuss the effectiveness and the necessity of forming a community when engaged in online learning. The Internet and... Sample PDF
The Role of Community Formation in Learning Processes
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Chapter 6
Tony Mullen, Christine Appel, Trevor Shanklin
An important aspect of the Web 2.0 phenomenon is the use of Web-embedded and integrated non-browser Internet applications to facilitate... Sample PDF
Skype-Based Tandem Language Learning and Web 2.0
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Chapter 7
Gary Motteram, Susan Brown
Web 2.0 offers potentially powerful tools for the field of language education. As language teacher tutors exploring Web 2.0 with participants on an... Sample PDF
A Context-Based Approach to Web 2.0 and Language Education
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Chapter 8
Lut Baten, Nicolas Bouckaert, Kan Yingli
This case study describes how a project-based approach offers valuable new opportunities for graduate students to equip them with the necessary... Sample PDF
The Use of Communities in a Virtual Learning Environment
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Chapter 9
George R. MacLean, James A. Elwood
Prensky (2001) posited the emergence of a new generation of “digital natives” fluent in the language of cyberspace and familiar with the tools of... Sample PDF
Digital Natives, Learner Perceptions and the Use of ICT
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Chapter 10
Steve McCarty
In a cross-cultural educational context of TEFL in Japan, the author sought to enhance the integrative motivation of students toward the target... Sample PDF
Social Networking Behind Student Lines in Japan
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Chapter 11
Antonie Alm
This chapter discusses the use of blogs for foreign and second language (L2) learning. It first outlines the suitability of blogs for language... Sample PDF
Blogging for Self-Determination with L2 Learner Journals
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Chapter 12
Revathi Viswanathan
Training ESL students in soft skills and employability skills with the help of Web 2.0 technologies is the current trend in Indian educational... Sample PDF
Using Mobile Technology and Podcasts to Teach Soft Skills
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Chapter 13
Andy Halvorsen
This chapter looks at the potential use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for educators and second language learners. It views SNSs broadly through... Sample PDF
Social Networking Sites and Critical Language Learning
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Chapter 14
Nicolas Gromik
This chapter reports on an ongoing project conducted at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan. A mixed group of seven advanced EFL learners produced... Sample PDF
Producing Cell Phone Video Diaries
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Chapter 15
Thomas Raith
This chapter explores in how far Web 2.0, Weblogs in particular, has changed foreign language learning. It argues that Weblogs, along with Web 2.0... Sample PDF
The Use of Weblogs in Language Education
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Chapter 16
Nat Carney
This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of blogs in Foreign Language Education (FLE) through reviewing literature, critically analyzing... Sample PDF
Blogging in Foreign Language Education
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Chapter 17
Pete Travis, Fiona Joseph
In particular, this chapter looks at the potential role of Web 2.0 technologies and podcasting to act as a transformational force within language... Sample PDF
Improving Learners' Speaking Skills with Podcasts
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Chapter 18
Volker Hegelheimer, Anne O’Bryan
The increasing availability of mobile technologies is allowing users to interact seamlessly with a variety of content anytime, anywhere. One of... Sample PDF
Mobile Technologies, Podcasting and Language Education
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Chapter 19
Jenny Ang Lu
This chapter aims to investigate how podcasts can be made to fit into the repertoire of resources utilized by teachers, especially in language... Sample PDF
Podcasting as a Next Generation Teaching Resource
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Chapter 20
Matthias Sturm, Trudy Kennell, Rob McBride, Mike Kelly
Web 2.0 tools like blogs, Wikis, and podcasts are new to the vocabulary of language acquisition. Teachers and students who take full advantage of... Sample PDF
The Pedagogical Implications of Web 2.0
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Chapter 21
John Paul Loucky
This study describes a task-based assessment (TBA) approach to teaching reading and writing online. It then analyzes key factors emerging from the... Sample PDF
Improving Online Readability in a Web 2.0 Context
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Chapter 22
Jaroslaw Krajka
This chapter contrasts the use of corpora and concordancing in the Web 1.0 era with the opportunities presented to the language teachers by the Web... Sample PDF
Concordancing 2.0: On Custom-Made Corpora in the Classroom
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Chapter 23
Darren Elliott
This chapter looks at the ways in which teacher training and teacher development are taking place online. It seeks to address the ways in which... Sample PDF
Internet Technologies and Language Teacher Education
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Chapter 24
Sarah Guth
This chapter discusses the potential of social software and Web 2.0 tools to enhance language learning in a blended learning context. It describes... Sample PDF
Personal Learning Environments for Language Learning
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Chapter 25
Shudong Wang, Neil Heffernan
This chapter introduces the concept of Mobile 2.0, a mobile version of Web 2.0, and its application to language learning. The chapter addresses the... Sample PDF
Mobile 2.0 and Mobile Language Learning
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Chapter 26
Euline Cutrim Schmid
The first part of this chapter discusses the transformative potential of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs), by analyzing the opportunities of using... Sample PDF
The Pedagogical Potential of Interactive Whiteboards 2.0
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Chapter 27
David Miller, Derek Glover
This chapter summarizes the work underway to chart, critically evaluate, and systematize the introduction of interactive whiteboards (IWB) into... Sample PDF
Interactive Whiteboards in the Web 2.0 Classroom
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Chapter 28
Samuel Holtzman
The process of technological inclusion begins with an analysis of the features and functions of the specific tool in consideration. Pedagogy should... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and CMS for Second Language Learning
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