Technology Change and Online Community Development

Technology Change and Online Community Development

Mark G. Elwell (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan) and Tunç D. Medeni (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 8
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-885-7.ch213
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Online communities are increasingly seen to display the same features accepted as characteristic of communities based on face-to-face interaction. Among the characteristics of “real,” “normal” communities is the ability to grow and thrive by evolving and adapting to, for example, changes in technology and infrastructure. Our experience in online gaming communities also demonstrates this same ability to evolve and adapt to technological and infrastructural changes. One online community that began in 1991 and continues to “live long and prosper” began in conception as a role-playing game called Starfleet and is now described as a shared fiction or collaborative writing group. Set in a fictional universe based on that of the television program “Star Trek: The Next Generation,” this group moved from the Prodigy online service onto Usenet in 1994 (it is still known by its newsgroup name, “alt.starfleet.rpg”), and by 2000 had established a Web-based Yahoo! Group ( com/group/starfleet-rpg/), which continues to be its means of functional interaction. Each of these hosting venues brought with it changes in the means (posts, direct e-mails, Web pages) by which game or collaborative writing activities were conducted. Parallel to these were changes in the rules, policies, and practices of the community. Even the nature and content of the social interactions of the members of the community changed in fundamental ways as its technological manifestation did so.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Usenet (Use(r) Net(work)): A global, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name, which allows users to upload messages, data, and applications in designated “newsgroups” which are automatically propagated worldwide.

Knowledge Technologies: Intelligent, information, or interaction technologies that support the creation and management of knowledge at various individual and social levels.

Verifiable and Evolvable Trustworthy E-Society: While the e-society refers to a part of society system that is implemented as an information system, the system meets the requirements of trustworthiness with regard to its correctness, accountability, security, and fault-tolerance, among others. It is aimed that this e-society system can evolve and progress in accordance with social changes.

Starfleet Role-playing Game: Original name of an online community whose activity is collaborative fiction based in the setting of the television program, “Star Trek: The Next Generation.”

Second Life: An online virtual environment in which users, via a free downloadable client program, interact with other users through avatars and can produce and edit the content.

BBS (Bulletin Board System): A computer system to which users connect by dialing in over telephone lines and which allows upload and download of files and exchange of real-time messages.

Alt.starfleet.rpg: Usenet newsgroup for Starfleet role-playing game (see); current name for that community.

Online Community: A group having the characteristics of a community which conducts its collective activities and associated social interactions over a computer network.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Contents by Volume
Goran D. Putnik, Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha
Goran D. Putnik, Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha
Chapter 1
Narjès Bellamine-Ben Saoud
Large advances and rapid changes in informatics, telecommunication, and groupware technologies added to rapid increases in information spread... Sample PDF
An Agent-Based Approach to Designing VO
Chapter 2
M. Mari, A. Poggi, M. Tomaiuolo
Virtual communities represent the gathering of people, in an online “space” where they come, communicate, connect, and get to know each other better... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Network Infrastructure for E-Communities
Chapter 3
Sheng-Uei Guan
With the ever-increasing amount of available online resources in general, information overload has become a very real problem. One possible solution... Sample PDF
Agent-Facilitated Virtual Marketplace for Airline Ticketing
Chapter 4
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik, Eva Miranda
The convergence of information technology developments, together with instructional and pedagogical developments, is creating opportunities for new... Sample PDF
The Agile and Virtual University
Chapter 5
Paul T. Kidd
Enterprises have been radically altered since the 1980s, so much so that people talk about a new paradigm, which is referred to by different names... Sample PDF
Agile Holonic Network Organizations
Chapter 6
Morgan M. Shepherd, Jr Martz, Vijay Raghavan
When you assemble a number of people to have advantage of their joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those people all their prejudices, their... Sample PDF
Ambiguity and Group Consensus
Chapter 7
Natalia Canadas
The “information gap” between the data provided by the traditional corporate reporting, with its focus on tangible assets, and the information used... Sample PDF
Analysis, Valuation, and Disclosure of Intangible Value
Chapter 8
Lina M. Pestana Leão de Brito, Laura M. Rodríguez Peralta
As with many technologies, defense applications have been a driver for research in sensor networks, which started around 1980 due to two important... Sample PDF
Basic Concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 9
Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves, Maria Jose Nunez, Amparo Roca-Togores, A. Steiger-Garcao
In order to maintain and increase the competitiveness of European companies in the advent of the emerging digital economy and smart organizations... Sample PDF
Better Interoperability in Smart Organizations
Chapter 10
Antonio José Caulliraux Pithon, Goran D. Putnik
To support the requirements for the new organizational forms of enterprises, the cooperative work and work groups approach has appeared. Cooperative... Sample PDF
BM_VE Architecture Reference Model for Concurrent Engineering
Chapter 11
Paulo Ávila, Goran D. Putnik, Maria Manuela Cunha, Ana Madureira
In this work, we will present the direct costs and times of the broker for the resources selection process in our agile/virtual enterprise (A/VE)... Sample PDF
Broker's Direct Cost and Time Variables and Expressions
Chapter 12
Julia Kotlarsky, Ilan Oshri, Paul C. van Fenema
Smith and Blanck (2002) claim that “an effective team depends on open, effective communication, which in turn depends on trust among members. Thus... Sample PDF
Building Trust in Globally Distributed Teams
Chapter 13
Bumerang  (pages 100-105)
António José Videira Tavares
The peer-to-peer (p2p) systems have promising characteristics to the sharing of digital resources—digital contents, processing power, bandwidth, and... Sample PDF
Chapter 14
Business Ecosystem  (pages 106-111)
Erik den Hartigh, Michiel Tol
As a consequence of the importance of technology platforms, it is almost impossible for firms to engage the competitive battle on their own. We... Sample PDF
Business Ecosystem
Chapter 15
Benjamin Urh, Tomaz Kern, Matjaz Roblek
The pace of development of products and services has rapidly increased in the last two decades. Enterprises are expected to respond to new market... Sample PDF
Business Process Modification Management
Chapter 16
Sean Eom
Business-to-business networks in a broadest sense are inter-organizational systems (IOSs). In the literature, the term IOSs and inter-organizational... Sample PDF
Business-to-Business Networks
Chapter 17
Josep Cobarsí Morales
Electronics-based information networks have brought widespread transformations in the way information flows in university campuses, to such a degree... Sample PDF
Campus as a Framework for a Networked University
Chapter 18
Patrice Braun, Mary Hollick
This article discusses capacity building of small and medium size enterprises (SME) in tourism networks in the context of the introduction of... Sample PDF
Capacity Building in SME Tourism Networks
Chapter 19
Pauline Ratnasingam
The Internet, a rapidly expanding global computer and communication infrastructure, has facilitated the emergence of digitization and globalization... Sample PDF
A Case Study in the Role of Trust in Web Service Securities
Chapter 20
Albert Boonstra
The objective of this article is to show by means of a case study how attempts to develop and implement inter-organizational systems (IOS) can be... Sample PDF
A Case Study On Inter-Organizational Systems and Power
Chapter 21
Iris Karvonen, Martin Ollus
Collaboration with other companies has long been a practice in several industrial fields like construction and one-of-a-kind manufacturing. During... Sample PDF
Challenges of VO Inheritance
Chapter 22
Javier Soriano, Rafael Fernández, Miguel Jiménez
Traditionally, collaboration has been a means for organizations to do their work. However, the context in which they do this work is changing... Sample PDF
Characterization and Classification of Collaborative Tools
Chapter 23
Dirk Werth
Business processes have arisen as the primary structuring object for enterprises (Davenport, 1993; Hammer & Champy, 1993; Scheer, 1999b). They... Sample PDF
Characterization and Classification of Cross-Organizational Business Processes
Chapter 24
Samuel Pierre
As computer networks evolve, the variety and quantity of machines available and the quantity of links used is increasing. In fact, each type of... Sample PDF
Characterizing E-Learning Networked Environments
Chapter 25
Tas Adam, Arthur Tatnall
The term learning disability (LD) refers to any retardation, disorder, or delayed development in one or more of the processes of speech, language... Sample PDF
Children with Special Needs as a Virtual Community
Chapter 26
Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Hamideh Afsarmanes
A collaborative network (CN) is an alliance constituted by a variety of entities (e.g., organizations and people) that are largely autonomous... Sample PDF
Classes of Collaborative Networks
Chapter 27
Hakki Eraslan, Melih Bulu, Metin Turkay
The corporate environment of organizations in the 21st century are expected to be very demanding, flexible, and competition driven as discussed by... Sample PDF
Clustering Analysis of Networked Organizations
Chapter 28
Giorgio Bruno, Marcello La Rosa
Web services are software components designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interactions over a network, through the exchange of SOAP... Sample PDF
Collaboration Based on Web Services
Chapter 29
H. B. Marri, A. Gunasekaran, Z. Irani, G.D. Putnik
For all small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the long term goal is to stay in business, grow, and make profit, especially for manufacturing SMEs... Sample PDF
Collaborative Alliance for the Implementation of Computer Integrated Manufacturing in Small and Medium Enterprises
Chapter 30
Javier Soriano, Genoveva López, Rafael Fernández
More and more often organizations tend to behave like dynamically reconfigurable networked structures that carry out their tasks by means of... Sample PDF
Collaborative Development Environments
Chapter 31
Javier Soriano, Sonia Frutos, Jiménez. Miguel
Open source communities are one of the most successful-- and least appreciated--examples of high-performance collaboration and community building on... Sample PDF
Collaborative Development within Open Source Communities
Chapter 32
Jayantha P. Liyanage, Mike Herbert
Owing to complexity and dynamism of the industrial settings, the business environment today is more prepared to adapt different competitive... Sample PDF
Collaborative Networks and Virtual Support Enterprises
Chapter 33
Thomas Matheis, Björn Simon, Dirk Werth
Due to the increasing heterogeneity and dynamics of the economy, more and more enterprises are challenged to adapt continuously to rapid changes, to... Sample PDF
Collaborative Performance Measurement
Chapter 34
Marina Rodrigues Brochado, Antonio José Caulliraux Pithon
An organization that intends to be capable of delivering quality products and services to its customers and must have all its functional departments... Sample PDF
Collaborative Techniques in Customer's Involvement
Chapter 35
María Dolores Olvera-Lobo, Rosa María Castro-Prieto, Enrique Quero-Gervilla, Ricardo Muñoz-Martín, Eva Muñoz-Raya, Miguel Murillo-Melero, Bryan Robinson, José Antonio Senso-Ruiz
In recent years, the influence of information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the professional practice of translation and... Sample PDF
Collaborative Work Training in Higher Education
Chapter 36
Sathya Rao, Eric Mannie-Corbisier, Leszek Siwik
The way of life has changed with the introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT) in every one’s day to day activities and the... Sample PDF
Collaborative Working in an ISP Environment
Chapter 37
Collective Intelligence  (pages 280-287)
Paulo Garrido, Wilfried Lemahieu
Intelligence is taken here as the ability for attaining goals or for solving problems that put at work responsiveness of the solver to the situation... Sample PDF
Collective Intelligence
Chapter 38
Gonçalo Nuno Sol Teixeira, Laura Margarita Rodríguez Peralta
In this article, we compare four distinct protocols for different wireless communication solutions. ZigBee, Bluetooth, and Ultra Wideband (UWB)... Sample PDF
Comparing ZigBee, Bluetooth, UWB, and Wi-Fi
Chapter 39
Nathalíe Galeano, Ekaterina Ermilova, Giraldo Jorge, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Arturo Molina
In order to acquire more business opportunities, by adapting to new and changing market conditions, organizations face many strategic and... Sample PDF
Competency Concept in VO Breeding Environments
Chapter 40
Oghenevwogaga Benson Adogbeji, Esharenana E. Adomi
The convergence of information and communication technology as embodied in the Internet has transformed the present day society into a knowledge... Sample PDF
Computer Networking of Cybercafés in Delta State, Nigeria
Chapter 41
Concept of Collaboration  (pages 311-315)
Luis M. Camarihna-Matos, Hamideh Afsarmanesh
Although everybody has an intuitive notion of what collaboration is, this concept is often confused with cooperation. For many people, the two terms... Sample PDF
Concept of Collaboration
Chapter 42
Yukiko Inoue
Although the phrase “virtual learning environment” (VLE) is commonly used, there are others that point to similar concepts of distance learning... Sample PDF
Concepts, Issues, and Challenges of Virtual Universities
Chapter 43
Conceição Maltez, António Moreira
In his well-known book The Library (1987)1, Umberto Eco writes about the role of the library which has evolved and changed over the centuries... Sample PDF
Constructing Virtual Libraries
Chapter 44
Frederico Moreira Bublitz, Emerson Loureiro, Hyggo Almeida, Evandro Costa, Angelo Perkusich
Pervasive computing is emerging as the new paradigm for the XXI century. Although it may be a new concept for many, its first ideas were introduced... Sample PDF
Context-Awareness in Pervasive Environments
Chapter 45
Rocci Luppicini
There is growing recognition of the important role conversational quality has in online learning, particularly within virtual organizations.... Sample PDF
Conversational Pragmatics and Learning in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 46
Ángel García del Dujo, Cristobal Nico Saurez Guerrero
Virtuality is a new technological condition in which diverse forms of social interaction take place. The relationship between technology and the... Sample PDF
Cooperative Interaction in Virtual Education
Chapter 47
Rostislav Markov, Shota Okujava
In recent years, a lot of research energy has been devoted to the planning and implementation process of electronic government (e-government)... Sample PDF
Costs, Benefits, and Risks of E-Government Portals
Chapter 48
Helena Santos Rodrigues, Pedro Figueroa Dorrego
To effectively compete, the company needs to adjust their internal strengths to the environmental opportunities. Considering the “intangible”... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors and Core Competencies
Chapter 49
Andrea L. Edmundson
“Networked virtual organizations outperform competitors by responding more quickly to customers, collaborating better with partners to perform value... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Learning Objects (XCLOs)
Chapter 50
Paulo N.M. Sampaio, Ildeberto A. Rodello, Laura M. Rodríguez Peralta, Paulo Alexandre Bressan
Virtual reality (VR) represents a modern human-computer interface consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) environment generated by computer where the... Sample PDF
Customizing Multimedia and Collaborative Virtual Environments
Chapter 51
Ken Stevens
A cybercell is a face-to-face group whose members extend their discussion to include virtual visitors (Stevens & Stewart, 2005a). This recent... Sample PDF
Cybercells for Virtual Teaching and Learning
Chapter 52
Paula Rodrigues
The word design is of English origin and it is linked to the concept of plan or project, to ideas such as draw, intention, or configuration. The... Sample PDF
Design and the Virtual Organization
Chapter 53
Peter Rittgen
Economic activities within and between networked organizations can be coordinated via hierarchies (internal coordination) or markets (external... Sample PDF
Designing Contracts for Business Networks
Chapter 54
Ghazi Alkhatib, Zakaria Maamar
Nowadays, Web services are emerging as a major technology for achieving automated interactions between distributed and heterogeneous applications... Sample PDF
Developing B2B Virtual Enterprises
Chapter 55
Almudena Moreno Mínguez, Enrique Crespo Ballesteros
A communications channel has an important dependence for the channel capacity (C, in bps) to channel bandwidth (W, in Hz) ratio; this is capacity... Sample PDF
Development of a University Networking Project
Chapter 56
Katia Passerini
This chapter presents experiences of time-limited networked forums created for the purposes of sharing views and insights on specific development... Sample PDF
Dialectical Discourse Management through Online Collaboration
Chapter 57
Almudena Moreno Mínguez, Enrique Crespo Ballesteros
Information and communication technology (ICT) is playing a central role in the development of modern economies and societies. Every young person... Sample PDF
The Digital Divide in Education in the Knowledge Society
Chapter 58
Antonis Sidiropoulos, Dimitrios Katsaros, Yannis Manolopoulos
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a characteristic example of a social network (Newman, 2003; Wasserman & Faust, 1994). Other examples of social... Sample PDF
Discovery and Existence of Communities in the World Wide Web
Chapter 59
Kathy O. Roper, Jun Ha Kim
The objective of this paper is to provide understanding in developing high performance distributed work arrangements (DWA), and suggestions for an... Sample PDF
Distributed Work Arrangements Supporting Organizational Needs
Chapter 60
Jiri Hodík, Jiri Vokrínek, Petr Becvár
A modern industry environment requires very fast response to incoming business opportunities. Small and medium enterprises (SME) usually cannot... Sample PDF
e-Cat for Partner Profiling and Competency Management Tool
Chapter 61
Fred Young Phillips
Metropolitan and rural regions around the world compete to attract enterprises (private companies, NGOs, parastatals, and government agencies) that... Sample PDF
Economic Development Alliances
Chapter 62
Maria Teresa de Noronha Vaz, Sílvia Brito Fernandes, Eric de Noronha Vaz
As opposed to the computer-based training of the 1980s, the term e-learning is most frequently used to refer to computer-based training which... Sample PDF
E-Learning Tool for Regional Development
Chapter 63
Martin Grieger, Evi Hartmann, Herbert Kotzab
Electronic marketplaces are inter-organizational information sharing systems that enable virtual business transactions and allow the exchange of... Sample PDF
E-Markets as Meta-Enterprise Information e Systems
Chapter 64
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
A large body of knowledge covering enterprise integration architectures, modelling, and methodologies (EIAM&M) has been developed covering various... Sample PDF
Enterprise Cost/Benefit Risk Analysis Using FMEA
Chapter 65
Cristina Carapeto
Educational systems should warrant learning needs of the population they serve offering a diversity of educational agents, strategies, and answers... Sample PDF
Environmental Sciences and Distance Education
Chapter 66
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
Most definitions of virtual enterprise (VE) incorporate the idea of extended and collaborative outsourcing to suppliers and subcontractors in order... Sample PDF
Environments for VE Integration
Chapter 67
Kam Hou Vat
With the rapid advances in networking technologies and the commercialization of the Internet today, many organizations are actively reflecting on... Sample PDF
E-Portfolio and Pedagogical Change for Virtual Universities
Chapter 68
Kevin Marshall
The growing belief among all involved in education— that children and adults should be lifelong learners—has spawned the emergence of interest in... Sample PDF
E-Portfolios in Teacher Education
Chapter 69
Dunja Mladenic, Nada Lavrac
One of the challenging research problems is to develop data mining and decision support integration techniques and to propose new methods for... Sample PDF
A European Virtual Enterprise on Collaborative Data Mining and Decision Support
Chapter 70
Peter Gall, Janice Burn
This chapter endeavours to clarify some of the concepts related to the virtual organisation and to move away from the definition of a “virtual... Sample PDF
Evaluating Organisational Readiness for Virtual Collaboration
Chapter 71
Ying-Chieh Liu, Janice M. Burn, Susan Stoney
This article describes a study to analyse the actual processes involved when virtual teams (VTs) undertake specific group tasks. Six VTs were... Sample PDF
Evaluating Processes and Performance in Virtual Teams
Chapter 72
Peter Gall, Janice Burn
As organisations enter an era of information superhighways, expanded electronic commerce, and “virtualness,” executives increasingly realise that in... Sample PDF
Evaluating Virtual Organisational Preparedness
Chapter 73
Marion Cottingham
For centuries universities have worked as individual entities in isolation, and students have attended classes their respective campuses. In the 70s... Sample PDF
The Evolution of Virtual Universities
Chapter 74
M. A. Rentroia-Bonito, J. Jorge, C. Ghaoui
Technology-rich environments are assuming a key role in the individual learning processes. Still, one of the major IT challenges identified in the... Sample PDF
An Exploratory Analysis of the Role of Emotions in E-Learning
Chapter 75
Teresa Torres-Coronas
In today’s competitive business world, global competition forces companies to continually seek ways of improving their products/services. The... Sample PDF
Exploring Environmental Factors in Virtual Teams
Chapter 76
Frank G. Goethals, Wilfried Lemanhieu, Monique Snoeck
The human communication processes that are involved in analyzing and designing a business and in designing, implementing, and maintaining... Sample PDF
Extended Enterprise Integration vs. Market B2B Integration
Chapter 77
Erik den Hartigh
In economics and management science, there has been increasing interest in network effects and social interaction effects. Network effects occur... Sample PDF
Extent of Network Effects and Social e Interaction Effects
Chapter 78
Jiri Vokrínek, Jiri Hodík, Michal Pechoucek, Petr Becvár, Jiri Pospíšil
The ExtraPlanT system addresses the concept of the extra-enterprise production planning in order to manage efficient resource allocation not only... Sample PDF
ExtraPlanT as a Multi-Agent System for Extra-Enterprise Collaboration
Chapter 79
António Abreu, Luis M. Camarinha-Mato
The participation in a collaborative network of enterprises is commonly assumed to bring valuable benefits to the involved entities (Afsarmanesh... Sample PDF
Fair Distribution of Collaboration Benefits
Chapter 80
Harith Indraratne, Gabor Hosszú
Controlling the access to data based on user credentials is a fundamental part of database management systems. In most cases, the level at which... Sample PDF
Fine-Grained Data Security in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 81
Elthon Oliveira, Hyggo Almeida, Leandro Silva, Nadia Milena, Frederico Bublitz, Angelo Perkusich
In the last years, virtual community systems (VCS) (Bublitz, Barbosa, & Costa, 2004) have been used as one of the main mechanisms for communication... Sample PDF
Formal Modeling and Verification of Virtual Community Systems
Chapter 82
Carlos Cruz Corona, Juan R. González, Alejandro Sancho Royo, David Pelta
NP-complete problems, like many of those arising in industry, cannot be approached with exact tools in reasonable time, so, approximation approaches... Sample PDF
A Fuzzy Multi-Agent System for Combinatorial Optimization
Chapter 83
W. F. Lawless, Laurent Chaudron, C. P. Abubucker
A major reason for the failure of rational models (cognitive science, game theory) of organizations is the use of static concepts of interdependence... Sample PDF
Galois Lattice Quantum Model for NVOs
Chapter 84
Jorge Ricardo Costa Ferreira
All everyday activities take place in space, and it is upon this that all information and knowledge revolve. The latter are the key elements in the... Sample PDF
Geography of the Information Society
Chapter 85
Kenneth J. Turner, Paul Lambert, K. L. Tan, Vernon Gayle, Richard O. Sinnott, Ken Prandy, Erik Bihagen, Marco H.D. van Leeuwen
Grid computing is named by analogy with the electrical power grid. Power stations are linked into a universal supply that delivers electricity on... Sample PDF
Grid Computing for Social Science
Chapter 86
J. Ares, A. Rodríguez-Patón, S. Suárez
Despite the current upsurge of the knowledge management discipline (KM) and the benefits that this discipline offers organizations, there are still... Sample PDF
Guidelines for Deploying a Knowledge Management System
Chapter 87
Guangzhi Zheng
As Web-based information systems and applications have been growing more and more complex, the concept of “Web engineering” begins to prevail.... Sample PDF
A Historical Perspective of Web Engineering
Chapter 88
Vincent E. Lasnik
One of the central problems and corresponding challenges facing the multi-disciplinary field of networked and virtual organizations has been in the... Sample PDF
Human Factors for Networked and Virtual Organizations
Chapter 89
Hirohisa Sakai, Kakuro Amasaka
The Japanese manufacturing industry is now developing global production by establishing production sites in various countries. High quality... Sample PDF
Human-Integrated Assist Systems for Intelligence Operators
Chapter 90
Alexander O. Rodriguez, Dorothy G. Dologite, Robert J. Mockler, Marc E. Gartenfeld
Technological advances have been encountered by managers continually over the years. electronic data interchange system (EDI), extensible markup... Sample PDF
Improving Customer Relations through E-Commerce
Chapter 91
Dulce Magalhaes de Sá
The Web-based information systems regarded as a specific type of information system (IS) bring significant advantages to organizations and users... Sample PDF
Improving User Satisfaction in VO through Systems Usability
Chapter 92
Lenka Landryová, Iveta Zolotová
The Web-based environment provides a platform for creating inquiry science projects for students to work out tasks using evidence and resources from... Sample PDF
Industrial Web Portal for Remote Supervisory Control
Chapter 93
Fernando Romero
Universities have historically been a source of fundamental knowledge, and the premier source of technologies that have found innumerable... Sample PDF
Industry and Academia Networks
Chapter 94
Josep Cobarsí Morales
Most disasters, such as wars, massacres or cultural meltdown, are generated or made worse by human acts. For thousands of years, man-made disasters... Sample PDF
Information Disasters in Networked Organizations
Chapter 95
D. T. Pham, E. E. Eldukhuri, A. Soroka, V. Zlatanov, M. S. Packiananther, R. Setchi, P. T.N. Pham, A. Thomas, Y. Dadam
This article presents the essence of the Innovative Production Machines and Systems (I*PROMS) Network of Excellence. It gives the rationale for... Sample PDF
The Innovative Production Machines and Systems Network of Excellence
Chapter 96
Asli Yagmur Akbulut, Jaideep Motwani
Citizens around the globe are demanding better services and more responsiveness from their local, state, and national governments. Governments are... Sample PDF
Integration and Information Sharing in E-Government
Chapter 97
Hélder Fanha Martins, Maria João Ferro
This article discusses the question of interaction in corporate e-learning. I will define the three kinds of interaction in Moore’s model, explain... Sample PDF
Interaction in Cooperative Learning
Chapter 98
Bob Travica
Modeling of virtual organization (VO) can be a useful method of making sense of a plethora of organizations that are proclaimed to be “virtual,”... Sample PDF
The ISSAAC Model of Virtual Organization
Chapter 99
Ruben van Wendel de Joode, Sebastian Spaeth
Most open source software is developed in online communities. These communities are typically referred to as “open source software communities” or... Sample PDF
Key Concepts and Definitions of Open Source Communities
Chapter 100
Rui F.L. Joaquim
With today’s technology, it is possible to improve the decision support of our networked and virtual organizations. More specific we are talking... Sample PDF
Key Concepts and Protocols in E-Voting
Chapter 101
Miia Kosonen, Kaisa Henttonen, Kirsimarja Blomqvist
Knowledge sharing in today’s distributed organizations is a challenge. Hierarchical structures may not support the fast flow of information or the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Blogs in Firm Internal Use
Chapter 102
Dora Simões, António Lucas Soares
Virtual communities and interorganizational networks are both overloaded concepts. Although it is assumed that they are related, there is some lack... Sample PDF
Knowledge Communities and Interorganizational Networks
Chapter 103
Luiz Antonio Joia
Since the beginning of the 1980s, a movement was fomented by academics and executives to use information and communication technology (ICT) not only... Sample PDF
Knowledge Transfer in G2G Endeavors
Chapter 104
Ilan Oshri, Julia Kotlarsky, Paul C. van Fenema
Recent years have witnessed the globalisation of many industries. Consequently, globally distributed and virtual teams have become increasingly... Sample PDF
Knowledge Transfer and Sharing in Globally Distributed Teams
Chapter 105
Ana C. Andrés del Valle
Virtual enterprises, like their traditional counterparts, face the challenge of surviving in an ever evolving market. Virtual enterprises are... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Based E-Learning in Virtual Enterprises
Chapter 106
Erla M. Morales, Francisco J. García, Ángela Barrón
One of the biggest challenges to knowledge management systems (KMS) is the great importance that many organizations have given to obtaining... Sample PDF
Learning Object Evaluation
Chapter 107
Tunç D. Medeni, Mark Elwell, Steven A. Cook, Euler G.M. de Souza
It is increasingly being recognized that participation in role-playing gaming communities contributes to the learning of their members. Within the... Sample PDF
Learning Reflection and Creativity in Online Game Communities
Chapter 108
Miguel Ponce de Leon, Karl A. Hribernik, Mats Eriksson
Today, new ways of constructing and delivering complex voice and data communication services require more elaborate and distributed design... Sample PDF
The Living Labs Approach to a Virtual Lab Environment
Chapter 109
Iva Miranda Pires
Competitiveness might be defined as the success with which firms and regions compete with one another over market shares and resources. Clusters are... Sample PDF
Local Networks in Global Markets
Chapter 110
Gerhard Chroust
The ‘native language’ (the mother tongue) is one of the most decisive identity factors of a nation. Besides being of political importance, it... Sample PDF
Localization, Culture, and Global Communication
Chapter 111
Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz, Danièle Fournier-Prunaret
If one isolated species (corporation) is supposed to evolve following the logistic mapping, then we are tempted to think that the dynamics of two... Sample PDF
Logistic Models for Symbiosis, Predator-Prey, and Competition
Chapter 112
Donald Barnes, John Kirk Ring
A service company’s major goal often tries to identify profitable customers and to retain those customers through long-term relationships (e.g.... Sample PDF
Long-Term Contracts in the Cellular Phone Industry
Chapter 113
Wafa Alsakini, Juhani Kiiras, Pekka Huovinen
Networking is the organizational form of the information age. Network organizations signify a form of collaboration designed to facilitate economic... Sample PDF
Management of a Virtual Construction Management Services Company
Chapter 114
Paul C. van Fenema, Ilan Oshri, Julia Kotlarsky
Today’s global economy depends on intra- and interorganizational distributed teams consisting of diversely specialized professionals for creating... Sample PDF
Management of Distributed Project Teams in Networks
Chapter 115
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
Voice over IP (VoIP) is the convergence of Internet technology and mobile telephones that offers low-cost voice communication services. It is still... Sample PDF
A Managerial Perspective of Mobile VoIP
Chapter 116
Ben Clegg, Mario Binder
Due to environmental changes and business trends such as globalisation, outsourcing and virtualisation, more and more companies get involved in... Sample PDF
Managing the Dynamic Reconfiguration of Enterprises
Chapter 117
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
Partners search and negotiation, selection, establishment of contracts, virtual enterprise integration, monitoring and enforcement of contracts, and... Sample PDF
Market of Resources: A Cost and Effort Model
Chapter 118
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
In the actual context of fast change, uncertainty, and competition, one of the most important factors of competitiveness is the organizations’... Sample PDF
Market of Resources: Opportunities Domain
Chapter 119
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik, Jaoquim P. Silva
The implementation of an organizational model characterized by very high interorganizational dynamics, such as the virtual enterprise (VE) model... Sample PDF
Market of Resources: Supporting Technologies
Chapter 120
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik, Ricardo Simões
According to a report on e-marketplaces for the health sector (Kuller, 2005), the European Health and Social Services sector is a complex web of... Sample PDF
Market of Resources for Health Care Teleservices Management
Chapter 121
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik, Paulo Silva Ávila
Most definitions of virtual enterprise (VE) incorporate the idea of extended and collaborative outsourcing to suppliers and subcontractors in order... Sample PDF
Market of Resources for Virtual Enterprise Integration
Chapter 122
Ani Calinescu, Janet Efstathiou
Networked systems, natural or designed, have always been part of life. Their sophistication degree and complexity have increased through either... Sample PDF
Measures of Network Structure
Chapter 123
Ying-Chieh Liu, Janice Burn, Susan Stoney
The results from prior studies on the effectiveness of virtual teams (VTs) are ambiguous and show that few studies have built upon previous findings... Sample PDF
Meta-Analysis Research on Virtual Team Performance
Chapter 124
Glauber Ferreira, Hyggo Almeida, Angelo Perkusich, Evandro Costa
The establishment of collective relationships is a native characteristic of individuals. Living in a recluse way cannot be considered part of human... Sample PDF
Mobile Virtual Communities
Chapter 125
Jalal Kawash, Christo El Morr, Hamza Taha, Wissam Charaf
Commuting forms an integral part of our lives, whether we are commuting for leisure or business. The use of location-based services and mobile... Sample PDF
Mobile Virtual Communities of Commuters
Chapter 126
Ton van Asseldonk, Erik den Hartigh, Leon Berger
This article concerns the relation between the morphology (concentration and connectivity) and the entropy of networked structures. We will... Sample PDF
Morphology and Entropy in Networks
Chapter 127
Toni Jarimo, Peter Ljubic, Jiri Hodík, Iiro Salkari, Marko Bohanec
Virtual organization partner selection has recently attracted the attention of researchers from various fields. The need for partner selection... Sample PDF
Multi-Criteria Partner Selection in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 128
Rita de Cássia Pereira, Carlo Gabriel Porto Bellini, Fernando Bins Luce
Relationship marketing evolves both in quantity and quality, as we can tell from the continuous incorporation of new constructs, models and... Sample PDF
Mutual Value in Business Relationships
Chapter 129
Juan R. González, Alejandro Sancho-Royo, David A. Pelta, Carlos Cruz
Biological entities (ranging from bacteria to humans) can engage in many and varied types of social interaction, from altruistic cooperation to open... Sample PDF
Nature-Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization
Chapter 130
Tunç D. Medeni, Nurun Nahar, Tolga Medeni, Saber Zrelli
“Internet” is an instance of a virtual and networked organization. We understand the meanings of virtual and network, however, in a broader sense... Sample PDF
Navigation at the Internet Front Line
Chapter 131
Xiaojia Guo, John Lim
Virtual organizations (VO) have become a reality in response to the rapidly changing demands of today’s business environment characterized by... Sample PDF
Negotiation Support Systems and Teams in VO
Chapter 132
Network Effects  (pages 1007-1013)
Erik den Hartigh
From the 1980s, network effects attracted a lot of interest in economics and management sciences. This was mainly due to the work of Arthur (e.g.... Sample PDF
Network Effects
Chapter 133
Erik den Hartigh
Network effects occur when to an economic agent (e.g., a consumer of a firm), the utility of using a product or technology becomes larger as its... Sample PDF
Network Effects and Market Outcomes
Chapter 134
A. Draghici, N. Matta, G. Molcho, G. Draghici
The “Communities of Practice” concept was first used in relation to the learning process in 1991 by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger (1991) at the... Sample PDF
Networks of Excellence as Virtual Communities
Chapter 135
G. Resconi
Any problem-solving can be modelled by actions or methods by which from resources or data, one agent makes an action to obtain a result or arrive at... Sample PDF
Network of Intelligent Agents
Chapter 136
S. Guan, X. Zhang
Memex (Bush, 1945) became an influential ideal and was hailed as the inspiration for hypertext and other new ways for information retrieval and... Sample PDF
Networked Memex Based on Personal Digital Library
Chapter 137
Networking and Corruption  (pages 1052-1057)
A. Pachmann, J. Dvorak
Networking has become an important aspect of modern life in recent years either in sciences or interpersonal relations. Networks are studied as new... Sample PDF
Networking and Corruption
Chapter 138
F. Vieira
On this case study, the aim was to understand the mechanisms for knowledge acquisition and its transformation in innovation performance by eight... Sample PDF
Networks and Industrial Clusters
Chapter 139
Guillermo Agustín Ibáñez Fernández
A computer network consists of computers that communicate via any physical media through a network formed by links and nodes, the nodes being the... Sample PDF
New Computer Network Paradigms and Virtual Organizations
Chapter 140
Cristina S. Rodrigues, Edite M.G.P. Fernandes, F. Vitorino Martins
The global competition, with the decreasing of economic barriers and the strong technological and knowledge development, is changing the context of... Sample PDF
A New Perspective Network Innovation
Chapter 141
The New Process of Work  (pages 1080-1086)
Maria do Rosario de Almeida
Toward the end of the twentieth century, more specifically in the 1990s, many organizations initiated changes in the way they used space and time.... Sample PDF
The New Process of Work
Chapter 142
Dirk Werth
Nowadays, economic organizations are dramatically changing towards networked structures (Österle, Fleisch, & Alt, 2000). These are characterized by... Sample PDF
A New Way of Conjoint Added Value N Generation in Collaborative Business Processes
Chapter 143
The NGO Forum  (pages 1093-1101)
Nurun Nahar, Tunç D. Medeni, Tolga Medeni
This article examines the unique characteristics of the NGO forum as a networked organization, that is, an organization structure that relies on... Sample PDF
The NGO Forum
Chapter 144
Jerzy Lepa, Arthur Tatnall
Around the world the proportion of older people is growing, and this group is accessing the World Wide Web more and more for a variety of purposes... Sample PDF
Older People, the Internet, and Virtual Communities
Chapter 145
Jason D. Baker, Robert H. Woods
Early studies of online communication examined the predominantly textual nature of online communication (e.g., e-mail, discussion boards, chat... Sample PDF
Online Communication and Social Engagement
Chapter 146
Hélder Fanha Martins, Maria João Ferro
Given the growing demand for the use of teams as fundamental building blocks in organizations (Furst, Blackburn, & Rosen, 1999), particularly... Sample PDF
Online Corporate Collaborative Teams
Chapter 147
Antonio Miguel Seoane Pardo, Francisco Jose Garcia Peñalvo
Man is the only animal that learns for his whole life. Therefore, learning is one of the most important activities of human beings. Information and... Sample PDF
Online Tutoring and Mentoring
Chapter 148
Joël Plisson, Peter Ljubic, Igor Mozetic, Nada Lavrac
It is commonly agreed that networking, as a new way of collaboration, brings benefit to its members (Camarinha- Matos & Afsarmanesh, 2005).... Sample PDF
Ontologies for Collaborative Networked Organizations
Chapter 149
Gila Molcho, Anca Draghici, Nada Matta
When organizations collaborate in virtual space, a common frame of reference, or at least a common terminology, is necessary for human-to-human... Sample PDF
Ontology and Expertise Map Building in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 150
Electronic Web-based campus information systems and e-learning educational delivery became increasingly important for higher education practice in... Sample PDF
The Open University of Catalonia as a Virtual University
Chapter 151
D.M.L.D. Rasteiro
This research is grounded in the view that organizations are information processing systems. Organizations design their structure, processes, and... Sample PDF
Optimizing Paths with Random Parameter Distributions
Chapter 152
Sonia Dahab, Filipe Amaral
The production of a good or service frequently requires that the supplier performs a wide range of activities. The coordination between those... Sample PDF
Outsourcing and Strategic Outsourcing
Chapter 153
Pair Modeling  (pages 1171-1178)
Pankaj Kamthan
We model software for a variety of reasons: to assess the viability of or plan software systems to be built, to optimize use of (minimize, or... Sample PDF
Pair Modeling
Chapter 154
Dulce Magalhaes de Sá, Ana Cristina M. Costa
Geographic information systems are largely used in different levels of administration and planning where geo-referenced information is a crucial... Sample PDF
Participatory Geographic Information Systems
Chapter 155
Zoltan Czirkos, Gabor Hosszú
The importance of the network security problems comes into prominence with the growth of the Internet. This article presents a special approach to... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Methods for Operating System Security
Chapter 156
Perception of VO Reliability  (pages 1192-1195)
Jerzy Kisielnicki, Tomasz Ochinowski
This article puts forward a thesis on the effectiveness of virtual organizations for profit, along with a preliminary test and discussion. In all... Sample PDF
Perception of VO Reliability
Chapter 157
Federico Montesino Pouzols, Angel Barriga Barros, Diego R. Lopez, Santiago Sánchez-Solano
The Internet and, more specifically, Web-based applications now provide the first-ever global, easy-to-use, ubiquitous and economical communications... Sample PDF
Performance Analysis and Models of Web Traffic
Chapter 158
Federico Montesino Pouzols, Angel Barriga Barros, Diego R. Lopez, Santiago Sánchez-Solano
Videoconferencing and multimedia communication technologies in general are gaining momentum with the development of networked organizations. Efforts... Sample PDF
Performance Analysis of Multimedia Traffic
Chapter 159
Federico Montesino Pouzols, Angel Barriga Barros, Diego R. Lopez, Santiago Sánchez-Solano
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have recently emerged as an attractive solution to enable large-scale content distribution without requiring major... Sample PDF
Performance Analysis of Peer-to-Peer Traffic
Chapter 160
Federico Montesino Pouzols, Angel Barriga Barros, Diego R. Lopez, Santiago Sánchez-Solano
In this article, general findings about Internet traffic models are first reviewed, with emphasis on two important invariants or characteristics... Sample PDF
Performance Measurement of Computer Networks
Chapter 161
Loreno Oliveira, Emerson Loureiro, Hyggo Almeida, Angelo Perkusich
Nowadays, we are experiencing an increasing use of mobile and embedded devices. These devices, aided by the emergence of new wireless technologies... Sample PDF
Pervasive and Grid Computing Merging
Chapter 162
T.T. Wong
Most hi-tech industries owe at least some of their success to being in the right place at the right time. This is especially true for the aircraft... Sample PDF
PMA Supplier Selection Using the Mahalanobis Taguchi System
Chapter 163
Laura A. Ripamonti, Armando Cirrincione
In 1994, Peters (1994) claimed that we are experiencing crazy times and that calls for crazy organizations. As a matter of fact, we are embedded... Sample PDF
Post-Modern Tribes as a Marketing Tool
Chapter 164
Vladanka S. Acimovic-Raspopovic, Mirjana D. Stojanovic
In order to reduce costs and make it easier to integrate disparate systems, networked and virtual organizations (NVOs) should adopt open technology... Sample PDF
Pricing Quality of Service in Diffserv IP Networks
Chapter 165
Alexandre Cerveira, Leonilde Reis, José Gaivéo
Nowadays, globalization and information and communication technologies are main issues on organizations and societies, changing the way how people... Sample PDF
The Problem with People and Information Security
Chapter 166
Paula Ventura Martins, Alberto Rodrigues da Silva
As organizations (involved or not in virtual organizations [VOs]) try to define their processes, they also recognize the need for continuous... Sample PDF
Process Management Methodology
Chapter 167
Maria Manuela Santos Natário, Paulo Anexandre Neto
The competitive and innovative performance of a territorial region depends on the persistence and attitude of the different actors (public and... Sample PDF
Process of Innovation in Beira Interior
Chapter 168
Adam Melski, Jan Borchert, Svenja Hagenhoff
In times of market globalization, aggravated competition and the shortening of product life cycles, many companies have turned to innovations as... Sample PDF
Project Management in Innovation Networks
Chapter 169
Vladimir Marík, Michal Pechoucek, Jiri Vokrínek
Production planning and resource allocation is a complex industrial decision-making problem. Sophisticated computational model of a manufacturing... Sample PDF
ProPlanT as a Multi-Agent Technology for Decision-Making Support
Chapter 170
Nolan J. Taylor
Personal computer performance has increased dramatically over the past decade. So powerful are these machines that they complete most required tasks... Sample PDF
Public Grid Computing Projects Survey and Analysis
Chapter 171
Public Private Networks  (pages 1300-1308)
Oliver Bohl, Ruth Schaefer, Udo Winand
The provision of services and the production of wares and services nowadays often require the cooperation of partners from different sectors. These... Sample PDF
Public Private Networks
Chapter 172
Erla M. Morales, Francisco J. García, Ángela Barrón
Nowadays, firms face a complex and changing business environment. Under the pressure to increase competitiveness, many firms have realised that... Sample PDF
Purchasing as an Integrated Competence
Chapter 173
Mirjana D. Stojanovic, Vladanka S. Acimovic-Raspopovic
A virtual private network (VPN) can be broadly defined as a “restricted communication between a set of sites, making use of a backbone that is... Sample PDF
QoS Provisioning Framework in IP-Based VPN
Chapter 174
Erla M. Morales, Francisco J. García, Ángela Barrón
Due to continuous technological advancements, the Web offers diverse applications for e-learning. However, in practice, many times technological... Sample PDF
Quality Learning Objective in Instructional Design
Chapter 175
Pedro Morillo, Juan Manuel Orduña, Marcos Fernandez
Networked virtual environments (NVEs) have become a major trend in distributed computing, mainly due to the enormous popularity of multi-player... Sample PDF
The Quality of Service Issue in Virtual Environments
Chapter 176
W.F. Lawless, C.R. Howard, Nicole N. Kriegel
Networked and virtual organizations (NVO’s) represent a new organizational paradigm, but no effective management solution exists. NVOs are supposed... Sample PDF
A Quantum Real-Time Metric for NVOs
Chapter 177
Park, SungBok
Since the emergence of new forms of communities in cyberspace, many scholars have attempted to define the nature of those communities—online, cyber... Sample PDF
Reconfiguration of Communities in Cyberspace
Chapter 178
Tunç D. Medeni, Shunji Iwatsuki, Steven A. Cook
It is important to underline that learning and knowledge are relative in terms of space and time (Medeni, 2005). This notion of relativity and the... Sample PDF
Reflective Ba and Refractive Ma in Cross-Cultural Learning
Chapter 179
Tomas Backström, Marianne Döös
Learning in organizations, and the competence the organization thereby obtains for performing its core tasks, has come into ever sharper focus when... Sample PDF
Relatonics as a Key Concept for Networked Organizations
Chapter 180
Jose Figueiredo
Actor-network theory (ANT) is usually intended as a powerful conceptual tool to study, analyse, describe and explain socio-technical systems. These... Sample PDF
Reviewing the Actor-Network Theory
Chapter 181
David de la Fuente
A supply chain is composed of all the stakeholders and processes involved in satisfying consumer demand: wholesaler, retailer, warehousing... Sample PDF
Revision of the Bullwhip Effect
Chapter 182
Iris Karvonen
Enterprises aim to gain benefits and competitive advantages by creating and participating in cooperation networks. Long-term collaboration networks... Sample PDF
Risk Management in Enterprise Networking
Chapter 183
RSS in Virtual Organizations  (pages 1393-1398)
Tom Chan
Rich site summary (RSS) is a type of XML document used to share Web contents. Originally designed by Netscape ( to create... Sample PDF
RSS in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 184
Iva Miranda Pires, Torunn Kvinge
Outsourcing is used to describe the situation where a firm decides to subcontract assembly and/or service functions to an external supplier, either... Sample PDF
Scales and Dynamics in Outsourcing
Chapter 185
Hannakaisa Isomäki, Kirsi Päykkönen, Hanna Räisänen
During the past few years, mobile technologies have become common in everyday life. Almost everyone carry some kind of mobile technological... Sample PDF
Secure Collaborative Learning Practices and Mobile Technology
Chapter 186
Volker Derballa, Atonia Albani
The necessity for managing knowledge is stressed by wide array of recent publications ranging from information science to strategic management... Sample PDF
Self-Modelling Knowledge Networks
Chapter 187
Giorgos Laskaridis, Konstantinos Markellos, Penelope Markellou, Angeliki Panayiotaki, Athanasios Tsakalidis
The emergence of semantic Web opens up boundless new opportunities for e-business. According to Tim Berners-Lee, Hendler, and Lassila (2001), “the... Sample PDF
Semantic E-Business Challenges and Directions
Chapter 188
Nicolaos Protogeros
Service-oriented architectures (SOA), mostly based on Web services (W3C), provide an industrial standard for deploying, publishing, discovering, and... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Architectures and ESB in VE Integration
Chapter 189
Katrina Leyking, Jörg Ziemann
During the last two decades, many enterprises have put business processes in the focus of their organizational strategies both for internal and... Sample PDF
Service-Oriented Architecture for Business Management
Chapter 190
Iris Reychav, Jacob Weisberg
The ongoing expansion of organizations’ international activities has led to a search for solutions to assist in the creation and transfer of... Sample PDF
Sharing Knowledge in Virtual Communities
Chapter 191
Social Interaction Effects  (pages 1454-1458)
Erik den Hartigh
Direct social interactions between economic agents (people) are important in determining their choices. When choosing a new car, you will likely ask... Sample PDF
Social Interaction Effects
Chapter 192
Vladimir Marík, Michal Pechoucek
The development in the recent decade has proven that the multi-agent paradigm represents a challenging framework for solving very complex tasks of... Sample PDF
Social Knowledge in Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 193
Kun Nie, Euler G.M. de Souza, Tunç D. Medeni
Resulting from the development of science and technology, scientific research dedicating to solve economic, social, environmental, and other related... Sample PDF
Social Network Analysis for Investigating Large Scientific Research Project
Chapter 194
The social network analysis (SNA) method is a set of methods considered these days as a paradigm or a method that offers “the mapping and measuring... Sample PDF
Social Network Analysis for Virtual Communities
Chapter 195
Euler G.M. de Souza, Tunç D. Medeni, Kun Nie
The entrepreneurial mindset is crucial to build and manage social networks. Entrepreneurs have proven to be skillful social networks builders and... Sample PDF
Social Networks through an Entrepreneurial Mindset
Chapter 196
Cristian Peraboni, Laura A. Ripamonti
The study of knowledge fascinated humanity since remote times (Wiig, 2000): the first “western” traces of this study dates back to the works of... Sample PDF
Socio-Semantic Web for Sharing Knowledge
Chapter 197
Francisco Andrade, Paulo Novais, Jose Neves
In the current economical context, characterized by the existence of a global society, the access to information is crucial for any economical and... Sample PDF
Software Agents and Contracts
Chapter 198
Pankaj Kamthan
The steady rise of open source software (OSS) (Raymond, 1999) over the last few decades has made a noticeable impact on many sectors of society... Sample PDF
Software Quality in Open Source Software Ecosystems
Chapter 199
J. Negreiros, M. Painho, I. Lopes, A.C. Costa
Several classical statements relating to the definition of GIS can be found in specialized literature such as the GIS International Journal... Sample PDF
Spatial Autocorrelation and Association Measures
Chapter 200
Ozlem Arisoy, Bopaya Bidanda
Globalization has inexorably affected the economies of many nations in both the developed and developing world. As a consequence, national... Sample PDF
Strategic Decision Making in Global Supply Networks
Chapter 201
Kakuro Amasaka
This paper proposes “New JIT”, a new principle of next generation management technology that contributes to corporate management. New JIT consists... Sample PDF
Strategic QCD Studies with Affiliated and Non-Affiliated Suppliers Utilizing New JIT
Chapter 202
Regional development has been playing an increasingly important role in the activities of higher education institutions (HEIs). The planning of... Sample PDF
Strategies for Virtual Organizations
Chapter 203
Strategies for Virtual Work  (pages 1535-1541)
Paul Jackson, Jane E. Klobas
As capital searches for new markets, greater efficiencies and competitive advantage, time, space and the boundaries of the firm become strategic... Sample PDF
Strategies for Virtual Work
Chapter 204
Takao Ito, Katia Passerini, Makoto Sakamoto
The keiretsu, a system of organizations with integrated and interlocking business relationships and joint shareholdings, is a form of networked... Sample PDF
A Structure Analysis of Keiretsu of Toyota
Chapter 205
Eugenia M.W. Ng
When we walk into any schools or universities, we often find educators teaching in front of the classroom. Despite numerous theories and research of... Sample PDF
A Student Teacher Collaborative Community
Chapter 206
Sense of Virtual Community  (pages 1559-1566)
Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen, Miia Kosonen, Kaisa Henttonen
Virtual communities have been an issue in academic research since the 1990s (c.f., Fernback & Thompson, 1995; Hagel & Armstrong, 1997; Preece, 2000;... Sample PDF
Sense of Virtual Community
Chapter 207
José Telhada, Tiago Pinho, Maria Sameiro Carvalho
Although logistics activities have been carried out by individuals for many centuries, only a few decades ago, logistics has been seen as a new area... Sample PDF
Supply Chain Integration in Construction Industry
Chapter 208
Antonis Sidiropoulos, Dimitrios Katsaros, Yannis Manolopoulos
During the past decade, the World Wide Web became the most popular network in the World. WWW grows with a very fast speed, thus the information that... Sample PDF
A Survey of Link Analysis Ranking
Chapter 209
Istvan Mezgár
Based on the results of the information and communications technologies (ICT), a new “digital” economy is arising. This new economy needs a new set... Sample PDF
Surveying Trust in Virtual Organizations
Chapter 210
António D. Reis, José F. Rocha, Atilio S. Gameiro, José P. Carvalho
This article talks generically about telecommunication systems. A telecommunication system involves a transmitter, a transmission medium, and a... Sample PDF
Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Systems
Chapter 211
Hélder Fanha Martins
Some of the very first Internet technologies to be used for learning or distance education and training were the World Wide Web and e-mail. The... Sample PDF
Synchronous Collaboration and Instruction
Chapter 212
Paulo Ávila, Goran D. Putnik, Maria Manuela Cunha, António Pires
Not just with the emergence but also with the growing of the electronic market, that is, the growth of online suppliers of services and products and... Sample PDF
Taxonomy of Broker's Functions in Virtual Enterprises
Chapter 213
Mark G. Elwell, Tunç D. Medeni
Online communities are increasingly seen to display the same features accepted as characteristic of communities based on face-to-face interaction.... Sample PDF
Technology Change and Online Community Development
Chapter 214
Fernando da Cruz Bandeira
The origins of distance learning (DL), as an alternative way of learning, can be traced back to the 19th century (Rumble, 1988) although it was only... Sample PDF
Technology in Distance Learning
Chapter 215
Reima Suomi
Telework is a major phenomenon of the information society. It refers to work being done independently of time and place, still often in an... Sample PDF
Telework and Data Privacy and Security
Chapter 216
Raymond Pardede, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
In the network level computer group-communication (one-to-many) technology, IP-multicast contributes significant roles in enhancing the physical... Sample PDF
Thematic-Based Group Communication
Chapter 217
Paz Perez González, Jose M. Framinan
A business process can be defined as a set of related tasks that are carried out within a business or organization in order to obtain certain output... Sample PDF
Tools for Collaborative Business Process T Modeling
Chapter 218
Patrice Braun
The push towards networked information and communication technologies (ICT), combined with increased customer expectations, has put extraordinary... Sample PDF
Tourism Networks and Clusters
Chapter 219
Peggy M. Beranek, Ben Martz, Monique French
Trust among team members is a major factor influencing the cohesiveness of the group, trust also has a direct impact on team performance, problem... Sample PDF
Training Techniques for Developing Trust in Virtual Teams
Chapter 220
Monique L. French, Peggy M. Beranek
Several factors have been shown to affect how effective virtual teams communicate. One of these factors, trust, has received a great deal of... Sample PDF
Training to Improve Trust in Virtual Teams
Chapter 221
Indushobha Chengalur-Smith, Peter Duchessi
In a global economy, organizations need to collaborate with other organizations because physical networks of suppliers and partners compete against... Sample PDF
Trends and Future Directions of Net-Enabled Connectivity
Chapter 222
Miia Kosonen, Kirsimarja Blomqvist, Riikka Ellonen
In the knowledge-based network economy, trust is becoming an increasingly important issue. Both economists (Arrow, 1974) and sociologists (Luhmann... Sample PDF
Trust and its Impersonal Nature
Chapter 223
Patrice Braun
It is widely accepted that technological change underpins a global economy and that geographic location and concentration is of foremost importance... Sample PDF
Trust in Networks and Clusters
Chapter 224
Trust in Virtual Communities  (pages 1697-1704)
Luis V. Casaló, Carlos Flavián, Miguel Guinalíu
Individuals are increasingly turning to computermediated communication in order to get information on which to base their decisions. For instance... Sample PDF
Trust in Virtual Communities
Chapter 225
Haigang Song, Tunç D. Medeni, Euler G.M. de Souza, Kun Nie
One of the most important characteristics of virtual and networked organizations is the facilitation of interactions across institutional... Sample PDF
Understanding and Using Boundaries in NVOs
Chapter 226
Shafiz Affendi Mohd Yusof
Virtual community can be defined as “a group of people who may or may not meet one another face-to-face and who exchange words and ideas through the... Sample PDF
Understanding the Virtual Community of Gamers
Chapter 227
Muhammad Asim Qayyum
The interaction process between humans and published writings started a long time ago, and people have been making notes or providing written... Sample PDF
Using Annotations for Information Sharing in a Networked Community
Chapter 228
Flavio Nunes
The argument of a paradigm shift in the organization of work is not new, it goes back to the post-Fordism debate, in which the dissolution of... Sample PDF
Using Telework and E-Work as Flexible Working Alternatives
Chapter 229
Jörg Ziemann, Timo Kahl, Dirk Werth
Increasing interconnection of organizations is a global trend. Independent organizational units or entire organizations build temporary or permanent... Sample PDF
Using View Process Models in Collaborative Business Processes
Chapter 230
Jengchung V. Chen, Yu-Hsiang Wang
The concept of the organizations as value creators is not new. The capacity to create value in a sustainable way is just recognized to the... Sample PDF
The Value Creation Process in Networked Organizations
Chapter 231
Via Nova Academy  (pages 1750-1756)
J. P.T. Thijssen
Currently there is much debate about the gap between business schools and the business world (Bennis & O’Toole, 2005; Gosling & Mintzberg, 2003;... Sample PDF
Via Nova Academy
Chapter 232
Jengchung V. Chen, Yu-Hsiang Wang
Since the Internet and other IT technologies have become more popular than ever before, the amount of time people spend with computers and IT... Sample PDF
Virtual Community and Online Game Players
Chapter 233
Sheng-Uei Guan, Fangming Zhu
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is booming with the increasing accessibility of the Internet. E-commerce is revolutionizing the concept of carrying... Sample PDF
A Virtual Community for Mobile Agents
Chapter 234
Gilliean Lee
In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for innovative ways of delivering education, which led to a more personalized, flexible, and... Sample PDF
Virtual Community of Learning Object Repository
Chapter 235
Andrea Bosin, Nicoletta Dessì, Maria Grazia Fugini, Diego Liberati, Barbara Pes
An electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) is a promising architectural model to develop collaborative supply chain management and integration... Sample PDF
Virtual Enterprise Environments for Scientific Experiments
Chapter 236
Virtual Informatics Museum  (pages 1785-1791)
José Maria Fernandes de Almeida
The only virtual informatics museum (VIM) existing in Portugal was conceived over personal memoirs and a long investigation and research work. The... Sample PDF
Virtual Informatics Museum
Chapter 237
Sheizaf Rafaeli, Tsahi Hayat, Yaron Ariel
A virtual knowledge-building community is a group of people who collaboratively produce knowledge through an online-mediated environment. The... Sample PDF
Virtual Knowledge-Building Communities
Chapter 238
Pedro Palhares, Alexandra Gomes
Virtual laboratories are increasing for all areas of scientific domains. However, the concept of such laboratories can be extended to include... Sample PDF
A Virtual Laboratory of Mathematics Education
Chapter 239
Vladimir Modrák
The wide utilisation of information communication technology has significantly affected also a development of logistics services concepts.... Sample PDF
Virtual Logistics from Outsourcing Logistics
Chapter 240
Ricardo Simões
Computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering (CAD/CAE) tools are a valuable resource in today’s product development process. Among other... Sample PDF
Virtual Modeling and Prototyping in Collaborative Product Design
Chapter 241
Michael Barlow
Modern computer games—one of the most common forms of entertainment today—have given rise to a diverse and rapidly changing collection of virtual... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizations in Commercial Games
Chapter 242
Kim Jansson, Iris Karvonen, Martin Ollus, Iiro Salkari, Ugo Negretto, Alexandra Klen, Paolo Paganelli
While single-domain and application-specific “organized networks” are known and have been in use throughout history, the concept of virtual... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizations Management
Chapter 243
Rocci Luppicini
The development of large-scale networked resource and virtual repository initiatives in Canada from 1995 to 2005 is interwoven with the availability... Sample PDF
Virtual Repository Development in Canada
Chapter 244
Wafa Alsakini, Juhani Kiiras, Pekka Huovinen
Changing market conditions and the fast development of information and communications technologies (ICT) have been the driving forces towards the... Sample PDF
Virtuality Among Construction Management Services Companies
Chapter 245
Peter Groenewegen, F. Pieter Wagenaar
The Dutch police system is neither centralized nor fully decentralized, as it consists of “regions” bigger than the municipalities, but smaller than... Sample PDF
VO as an Alternative to Hierarchy in the Dutch Police Sector
Chapter 246
David Romero, Nathalíe Galeano, Arturo Molina
The concept of virtual organization breeding environment (VBE) has emerged as the necessary context for effective creation of dynamic virtual... Sample PDF
VO Breeding Environments Value System and Metrics
Chapter 247
Raif Parlakkaya, Adem Ögüt, M. Tahir Demirsel
Knowledge-based companies are transforming everything: the way they are organized and managed, the way they do work and develop new products, the... Sample PDF
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About the Editors