Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations

Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations

Katharina Scheiter (University of Tuebingen, Germany), Eric Wiebe (North Carolina State University, USA) and Jana Holsanova (Lund University, Sweden)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-158-2.ch005
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Multimedia environments consist of verbal and visual representations that, if appropriately processed, allow for the construction of an integrated mental model of the content. Whereas much is known on how students learn from verbal representations, there are fewer insights regarding the processing of visual information, alone or in conjunction with text. This chapter uses a semiotics approach to provide a defi- nition of visualizations as a specific form of external representation, and then discusses the differences between verbal and visual representations in how they represent information. Finally, it discusses how meaning is achieved when learning with them. The next section discusses basic perceptual and cognitive processes relevant to learning with visualizations. This background is used to specify the instructional functions that visualizations have either as self-contained instructional messages or as text adjuncts. Moreover, the role of individual differences in processing visualizations is highlighted. The chapter ends with methodological suggestions concerning the important role of interdisciplinary research and assessment methods in this area.
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Visualizations constitute a key component in multimedia-based instruction, which can be defined as learning from text and pictures (e.g., Mayer, 2005). Despite the fact that visualizations are used more and more frequently in informal and formal educational settings, not much is understood about their semiotic properties, how humans process them, and how they can be best designed to learn from. In educational research, visualizations are often treated in a uniform manner, despite the fact that the visualizations might serve vastly different functions depending on the audience and goals. Just as bad, visualizations are treated as functionally equivalent to text. As a consequence, reviews on learning with visualizations are equivocal, with studies showing widely varying effects (negative to positive) on learning. In the current chapter, we will try to provide a more differentiated view by first reviewing the literature from different disciplinary perspectives (education, semiotics, perception, and cognition) to characterize different types of visualizations, to distinguish them from verbal representations, and to describe how information is derived from them. This approach will attempt to provide a unique approach to addressing the question of when and why visualizations are effective for learning. After some summarizing remarks, directions for future research will be outlined in the final section of this chapter. It is important to note, however, that we will not review the more mainstream literature on the effectiveness of learning with visualizations, as comprehensive reviews can be found elsewhere (e.g., Anglin, Vaez, & Cunningham, 2004; Rieber, 1994).

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Robert Zheng
Chapter 1
Renae Low
Our knowledge of human cognitive architecture has advanced dramatically in the last few decades. In turn, that knowledge has implications for... Sample PDF
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design in a Multimedia Context
Chapter 2
Peter E. Doolittle
This chapter addresses the role that working memory capacity (WMC) plays in learning in multimedia environments. WMC represents the ability to... Sample PDF
Multimedia Learning and Working Memory Capacity
Chapter 3
Anne E. Cook
This chapter focuses on issues dealing with the definition and measurement of cognitive load in multimedia and other complex learning activities.... Sample PDF
Measurement of Cognitive Load During Multimedia Learning Activities
Chapter 4
Stephen K. Reed
This chapter discusses a theoretical framework for designing multimedia in which manipulation, rather than perception, of objects plays the... Sample PDF
Manipulating Multimedia Materials
Chapter 5
Katharina Scheiter, Eric Wiebe, Jana Holsanova
Multimedia environments consist of verbal and visual representations that, if appropriately processed, allow for the construction of an integrated... Sample PDF
Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations
Chapter 6
Florian Schmidt-Weigand
This chapter introduces eye tracking as a method to observe how the split of visual attention is managed in multimedia learning. The chapter reviews... Sample PDF
The Influence of Visual and Temporal Dynamics on Split Attention: Evidences from Eye Tracking
Chapter 7
Tad T. Brunyé, Tali Ditman, Jason S. Augustyn
Multiformat and modality interfaces have become popular and effective tools for presenting information in training and instructional systems.... Sample PDF
Spatial and Nonspatial Integration in Learning and Training with Multimedia Systems
Chapter 8
Mike DeSchryver
We claim that the Web has the potential to be a quintessential multimedia environment for complex learning, particularly in ill-structured domains.... Sample PDF
New Forms of Deep Learning on the Web: Meeting the Challenge of Cognitive Load in Conditions of Unfettered Exploration in Online Multimedia Environments
Chapter 9
Renae Low
In the field of multimedia learning, although research on cognitive effects and their implications for instructional design is rich, research on the... Sample PDF
Motivation and Multimedia Learning
Chapter 10
Min Liu, Paul Toprac, Timothy T. Yuen
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue... Sample PDF
What Factors Make a Multimedia Learning Environment Engaging: A Case Study
Chapter 11
Michael J. Hannafin, Richard E. West, Craig E. Shepherd
This chapter examines the cognitive demands of student-centered learning from, and with, Web-based multimedia. In contrast to externally-structured... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Demands of Student-Centered, Web-Based Multimedia: Current and Emerging Perspectives
Chapter 12
Lloyd P. Rieber
This chapter presents a review of research on the use and role of interactive simulations for learning. Contemporary theories of learning... Sample PDF
Supporting Discovery-Based Learning within Simulations
Chapter 13
Gina J. Mariano
The role and promotion of transfer in multimedia instructional environments is an oft-neglected concept in instructional multimedia research.... Sample PDF
Fostering Transfer in Multimedia Instructional Environments
Chapter 14
Kirsten R. Butcher, Sebastian de la Chica, Faisal Ahmad, Qianyi Gu, Tamara Sumner, James H. Martin
This chapter discusses an emerging theme in supporting effective multimedia learning: developing scalable, cognitively-grounded tools that customize... Sample PDF
Conceptual Customization for Learning with Multimedia: Developing Individual Instructional Experiences to Support Science Understanding
Chapter 15
Mingming Zhou
We suggest that multimedia environments can benefit from learning as well as offer significant capacity to serve as research purposes. Because... Sample PDF
Designing Multimedia to Trace Goal Setting in Studying
Chapter 16
Alan D. Koenig, Robert K. Atkinson
The first part of this chapter explores how narrative can be used as a cognitive aid in educational video games. It discusses how narrative is... Sample PDF
Using Narrative and Game-Schema Acquisition Techniques to Support Learning from Educational Games
Chapter 17
Marian J.A.J. Verhallen
Advanced digital storybooks offer, in addition to an oral rendition of text, the possibility of enhancing story content through the use of video. In... Sample PDF
How Literacy Emerges from Living Books in the Digital Era: New Chances for Young Linguistically Disadvantaged Children
Chapter 18
Wolff-Michael Roth
To learn by means of analogies, students have to see surface and deep structures in both source and target domains. Educators generally assume that... Sample PDF
Emergence of Analogies in Collaboratively Conducted Computer Simulations
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