TPACK Vernaculars in Social Studies Research

TPACK Vernaculars in Social Studies Research

John K. Lee (North Carolina State University, USA) and Meghan M. Manfra (North Carolina State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch007
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To address the myriad effects that emerge from using technology in social studies, we introduce in this chapter the concept of vernaculars to represent local conditions and tendencies, which arise from using technology in social studies. The chapter includes three examples of TPACK vernaculars in social studies. The first explores a theoretical TPACK vernacular where Web 2.0 technologies support social studies and democratic life. The second example is focused on a three-part heuristic for seeking information about digital historical resources from the Library of Congress. Example three presents personalized vernacular TPACK developed by teachers planning to use an online gaming website called Whyville. Research and theorizing on vernacular forms of TPACK in social studies can aid teachers as they reflect on their own experiences teaching with technology.
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The unique democratic purposes of social studies demand forms of research that are focused and long-range in view. This condition is particularly important in research on technology and social studies, where the connections between content and technology are complex. While technology offers much in terms of access to information and new tools to learn using this information, technology can divide people based on socio-economic status and, in some educational settings, may distract from democratic and authentic learning.

In view of social studies’ central purpose as a set of courses designed to prepare young people for participation in democratic life, the usefulness of technology is much debated (Berson, Lee, & Stuckart, 2001). Some proponents argue that technology can support democratic purposes by addressing social problems, facilitating the political processes, and enabling access to information (O’Brien, 2008). At the same time, technology can distract from some of the humanistic and interpersonal aims of social studies, such as face-to-face dialogue and equal access to information (Tally, 2007).

Technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge) is a helpful context for exploring the various contradictions and complexities related to how teachers use technology in their planning and teaching. Within the TPACK framework is a mechanism for articulating the decision-making processes that teachers engage in when determining how to use technology. TPACK is a complex and situated process that occurs within very local and particular contexts. In their seminal work on the TPACK conceptual framework, Mishra and Koehler (2006) argued that the complexity of TPACK emerges out of multiple contexts including the rapid rate of change in technology, the inappropriate design of software, and the situated nature of learning. Consequently, Mishra and Koehler (2006) suggested that, “quality teaching requires developing a nuanced understanding of the complex relationships between technology, content, and pedagogy, and using this understanding to develop appropriate, context-specific strategies and representations” (p. 1029). In addition to being complex, TPACK is particularistic. Mishra and Koehler (2006) have gone so far as to argue that there is “no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching” (p. 1029). Perhaps what is most difficult about operationalizing TPACK is that it attempts to capture the internal dialogue of the teacher. TPACK is a fluid form of teacher knowledge that is continually growing and changing based on new experiences. What works in one classroom, may not work in another.

To address the myriad effects that emerge from using technology in social studies, we introduce in this chapter the concept of vernaculars to represent local conditions and tendencies, which arise from using technology in social studies. We further explore specific TPACK vernaculars as they take form in planning and teaching social studies. In the next sections, we discuss the unique purposes of social studies and ways that TPACK vernaculars may emerge using examples from three situated research contexts. The first of these contexts is a theoretical consideration for how Web 2.0 technologies might support social studies aimed at democratic life. Two case studies are also presented as additional research contexts that attempt to unpack local conditions that emerge when pre-service social studies teachers plan to use technology in social studies.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes, Margaret L. Niess
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes, Margaret L. Niess
Chapter 1
Margaret L. Niess
Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) is a dynamic lens that describes teacher knowledge required for designing, implementing, and... Sample PDF
Teacher Knowledge for Teaching with Technology: A TPACK Lens
Chapter 2
Matthew J. Koehler, Tae Seob Shin, Punya Mishra
In this chapter we reviewed a wide range of approaches to measure Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). We identified recent... Sample PDF
How Do We Measure TPACK? Let Me Count the Ways
Chapter 3
Thomas C. Hammond, R. Curby Alexander, Alec M. Bodzin
The TPACK framework provides researchers with a robust framework for conducting research on technology integration in authentic environments, i.e.... Sample PDF
Assessment in Authentic Environments: Designing Instruments and Reporting Results from Classroom-Based TPACK Research
Chapter 4
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes
In this study, we examine the validity of the Comprehensive Framework for Teacher Knowledge (CFTK) through a systematic review and meta-analysis.... Sample PDF
A Comprehensive Framework for Teacher Knowledge (CFTK): Complexity of Individual Aspects and Their Interactions
Chapter 5
Lynn Bell, Nicole Juersivich, Thomas C. Hammond, Randy L. Bell
Effective teachers across K-12 content areas often use visual representations to promote conceptual understanding, but these static representations... Sample PDF
The TPACK of Dynamic Representations
Chapter 6
Erica C. Boling, Jeanine Beatty
This chapter informs teacher educators and individuals involved in teacher professional development about the tensions that frequently arise when... Sample PDF
Overcoming the Tensions and Challenges of Technology Integration: How Can We Best Support our Teachers?
Chapter 7
John K. Lee, Meghan M. Manfra
To address the myriad effects that emerge from using technology in social studies, we introduce in this chapter the concept of vernaculars to... Sample PDF
TPACK Vernaculars in Social Studies Research
Chapter 8
Stephen J. Pape, Karen E. Irving, Clare V. Bell, Melissa L. Shirley, Douglas T. Owens, Sharilyn Owens, Jonathan D. Bostic, Soon Chun Lee
Classroom Connectivity Technology (CCT) can serve as a tool for creating contexts in which students engage in mathematical thinking leading to... Sample PDF
Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge
Chapter 9
Christopher J. Johnston, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham
Multiple existing frameworks address aspects of teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology. This study proposes the integration of... Sample PDF
A Model for Examining the Criteria Used by Pre-Service Elementary Teachers in Their Evaluation of Technology for Mathematics Teaching
Chapter 10
Joseph M. Piro, Nancy Marksbury
With the continuing shift of instructional media to digital sources occurring in classrooms around the world, the role of technology instruction in... Sample PDF
Technologizing Teaching: Using the WebQuest to Enhance Pre-Service Education
Chapter 11
Travis K. Miller
This chapter details a theoretical framework for effective implementation and study of technology when used in mathematics education. Based on... Sample PDF
A Theoretical Framework for Implementing Technology for Mathematics Learning
Chapter 12
David A. Slykhuis, Rebecca McNall Krall
In this review of recent literature on the use of technology to teach science content, 143 articles from 8 science education journals were selected... Sample PDF
Successful Implementation of Technology to Teach Science: Research Implications
Chapter 13
Irina Lyublinskaya, Nelly Tournaki
A year-long PD program was provided to four NYC integrated algebra teachers. The PD comprised of teacher authoring of curriculum that incorporated... Sample PDF
The Effects of Teacher Content Authoring on TPACK and on Student Achievement in Algebra: Research on Instruction with the TI-Nspire™ Handheld
Chapter 14
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes
This chapter examines issues surrounding the design of research in educational technology and teacher knowledge. The National Research Council... Sample PDF
Making the Grade: Reporting Educational Technology and Teacher Knowledge Research
About the Contributors