An Affinity Based Complex Artificial Immune System

An Affinity Based Complex Artificial Immune System

Wei Wang, Mei Chang, Xiaofei Wang, Zheng Tang
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2928-8.ch012
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This paper proposes an affinity based complex artificial immune system considering the fact that the different eptitopes located on the surface of antigen can be recognized by a set of different paratopes expressed on the surface of immune cells. A neighborhood set consisting of immune cells with different affinities to a certain input antigen is built to simulate the nature immune behavior. Furthermore, the complex numbers are adopted as the data representation, besides the weight between different layers. In the simulations, the recognition on transformation patterns is performed to illustrate that the proposed system is capable of recognizing the transformation patterns and it has obviously higher noise tolerance ability than the previous system models.
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2. Immune Response Mechanism

Figure 1.

Immune response process


Figure 1 depicts the immune response process in detail considering the affinity interactions. When an antigen invades the host, antigen present cells first internalize the invaded antigen to secrete antigenic peptides, either by phagocytosis or by endocytosis. These antigenic peptides join to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and display on the surface of antigen presenting cell together. Th cells recognize the peptide-MHC molecules through T-cell receptors. Activated Th cells divide and secrete interleukin (IL+), or other chemical signals, which mobilize other components (B cells etc.) of the immune system. It is remarked that Th cells with different receptors recognize complex of peptide-MHC with different affinity. If Th cell receptors and antigens are not quite complementary, they may still bind, but with a low affinity. However, B cells can also be activated by antigens directly. Activated B cells can divide and differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells. Plasma cells secrete the antibodies to destroy the invaded antigen. When antigen is destroyed, Ts cells are activated and secrete suppressing signal interleukin (IL-) to Th cells to terminate immune response. As for the memory B cells, when they encounter the same antigens once again, they will divide into plasma cells rapidly, and generate abundant antibodies soon, which is called the second response.

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