Biometric Security

Biometric Security

Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani (Anbar University, Iraq)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6583-5.ch011
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Abstract

The terms biometrics and biometry have been used to refer to the field of development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences. Recently biometrics refers to technologies and applications applied for personal identification using physical and behavioral parameters. Biometric security systems ensuring that only the authorized persons are permitted to access a certain data, because it is difficult to copy the biometric features pattern for a specific person. Biometrics is playing an important role in applications that are centric on identification, verification and classification. This chapter focuses on biometric security in their types, specifications, technologies and algorithms. Some algorithms of biometric security are also included in this chapter. Finally latest and future aspects of biometric system and merging technologies are also mentioned, including more details of system structures and specifications and what constitution will shape biometric security of in the future.
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Background Of Biometric Security

Biometrics as a Key of Security

Biometrics technology is not a new concept; it is the oldest form of identification. As early as the 14th century, the Chinese were reportedly using fingerprint-like methods as a method of identifying of their children.

There are three basic, independent but related concepts of security (Jain et al, 1999):

  • Concept of Identification: Who you are.

  • Concept of Authentication: Proving whom you are.

  • Concept of Authorization: What you are allowed to do.

Recently, huge data transfer all over the word every day, therefore identity theft and the loss of data and related intellectual property are growing problems. Now each have multiple accounts and use multiple passwords on an ever-increasing number of computers and Web sites. Maintaining and managing access while protecting both the user's identity and the computer's data and systems has become increasingly difficult. Security is the concept of authentication - verifying that the user is who he claims to be. Biometric based authentication applications refer to three types of authentication (Delac & Grgic, 2004).

  • Something you know (most common used is a password or pin)

  • Something you have (tokens such as a smart card), and finally

  • Something you are (such as biometric).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Behavioral Biometrics: Types of human biometrics characteristics that depend on Behavioral characteristics include: gait, signature, and voice.

Biometric Recognition: The automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic. It is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and increase the efficiency of access to services and their utilization.

Biometric Verification: The c omparison of two or more items, or the use of supplementary tests, to ensure the accuracy, correctness, or truth of the information. In biometric this deals with biometric features.

Physiological Biometrics: Types of human biometrics characteristics that depend on physical characteristics include: DNA, ear, face, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris, and retina.

Biometric Technologies: Appear to be useful tools for identification and verification in security initiatives. Biometric technology uses computerized methods to identify a person by their unique physical or behavioral characteristics.

Biometric Authentication: Electronic identification of an individual on the basis of his or her unique biological or physiological characteristics (together called Biometric Signature) such as facial features, fingerprints, hand geometry, retinal patterns, voiceprint.

Biometric E-Passport: A combined paper and electronic identity document that uses biometrics to authenticate the citizenship of travelers. The passport's critical information is stored on a tiny computer chip, much like information stored on smartcards. The chip is able to hold digital signature data to ensure the integrity of the passport and the biometric data.

Multibiometric: An authentication technology using different biometric technologies such as fingerprints, facial features, and vein patterns in the identification and verification process. The use of Multi-Biometrics takes advantages of the capabilities of each biometric technology while overcoming the limitations of a single technology.

Biometric Identification: Biometric features that are used to verify the identity of the individual trying to access a computer system, network, credit card account, ATM, etc.

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