Knowledge Representation Technologies Using Semantic Web

Knowledge Representation Technologies Using Semantic Web

Vudattu Kiran Kumar (Dravidian University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1877-8.ch009


The World Wide Web (WWW) is global information medium, where users can read and write using computers over internet. Web is one of the services available on internet. The Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. Since then a great refinement has done in the web usage and development of its applications. Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. Semantic web is not a separate web it is an extension to the current web with additional semantics. Semantic technologies play a crucial role to provide data understandable to machines. To achieve machine understandable, we should add semantics to existing websites. With additional semantics, we can achieve next level web where knowledge repositories are available for better understanding of web data. This facilitates better search, accurate filtering and intelligent retrieval of data. This paper discusses about the Semantic Web and languages involved in describing documents in machine understandable format.
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Introduction To Semantic Web

According to the Authors Berners-Lee, Tim; James Hendler and Ora Lassila (2008), the Semantic Web is an emerging technology intended to transform ‘documents’ on the World Wide Web (WWW) into Knowledge that can be processed by machines. The scholar Sreedhar. G (2016) in his chapter he quoted that World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an open source organizations and it defines various web standards for designing a website. The W3C is led by web inventor Tim Berners-Lee and CEO. The standards defined by W3C are considered as guidelines and these guidelines help in assessing the quality of website content in presenting the web content. Web mining is the process of investigating various aspects of websites. According to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), “The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.” The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. Figure 1 represents Semantic Layer with different technologies are used in designing Semantic Web applications. The primary purpose of these languages is to represent machine-understandable information and to support interoperability between applications on web. Once we add semantics to the website, we can design semantic web applications for the users to use. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) represents any resource on the web with unique name. The key technologies include Resource Description Framework (RDF), Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) and Ontology Web Language (OWL).

Figure 1.

Semantic layer cake


Uri Ref And Namespaces

A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a character string that identifies an abstract (or) physical resource on the web. A URI reference (URI ref) is a URI with an optional fragment identifier attached to it and preceded by character “#”. For example, the following string is a URI ref [], where “” is a URI and “All_Genders” is a fragment identifier which was preceded by “#”.

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