Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management

Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management

David Schwartz (Bar-Ilan University, Israel)
Release Date: September, 2005|Copyright: © 2006 |Pages: 902
ISBN13: 9781591405733|ISBN10: 1591405734|EISBN13: 9781591405740|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-573-3


The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is the most comprehensive source of coverage related to the past, present, and emerging directions of knowledge management.

The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management provides a broad basis for understanding the issues, technologies, theories, applications, opportunities, and challenges being faced by researchers and organizations today in their quest for knowledge management. Over 170 contributors from 23 countries have conferred their expertise to this publication, and with 940 definitions and more than 3,600 references, this encyclopedia is the single source for reliable and modern-day research in the field of knowledge management.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Application-specific knowledge management issues
  • Communities of practice and knowledge management
  • Creating tools for knowledge management
  • Knowledge management and virtual organizations
  • Knowledge management for e-economy
  • Knowledge management in the global economy
  • Legal aspects of knowledge management
  • Managerial aspects of knowledge management
  • Managing organizational knowledge
  • Organizational and social aspects of knowledge management
  • Organizational learning and knowledge
  • Organizing knowledge management in distributed organizations
  • Processes of knowledge management
  • Stakeholder-based knowledge management in organizations
  • Successful knowledge management systems implementation
  • Technologies of knowledge management
  • Theoretical aspects of knowledge management
  • Valuation of knowledge in public-private enterprises

Reviews and Testimonials

"The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is an excellent addition to the field of study. Its scope and breadth make it a useful resource for students and researchers alike."

– Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship, Vol. 12(1) 2006

The text is a solid reference work composed of peer-reviewed essays...
- CHOICE, April 2006, Volume 43 No. 8 "It provides an authoritative repository of KM concepts issues, techniques and research, making it an ideal tool for policy decision makers, educators and managers who need to consider strategic aspects of the knowledge environment and its systems."

– Australian Library Journal

The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management offers an interesting and fairly comprehensive picture of an emerging and truly interdisciplinary field of study.

– Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, Spring 2006

In a discipline as young as KM, the future depends on the addition of books like the Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management to gain support, interest and spur the imagination of future workforces to enable the leveraging of organizations' intellectual assets to increase their performance and help them move toward becoming a 'knowledge-based enterprise'.

– VINE: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, Vol. 36 No. 1, 2006

...the editorial accomplishments of Dr. David Schwartz and his international Editorial Board are noteworthy – a great achievement...

– Nihul - Israel Managers Bimonthly Magazine

It is a recommended reference work for all knowledge management (KM) libraries and any course dealing with KM; and for any student, practitioner, or researcher either trying to learn more about KM, establishing a KM initiative, or conducting research into KM.

– International Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 2 Issue 3

It will complement any personal or professional library and may become an extremely useful reference tool for many individuals on a personal and professional level.

– American Reference Books Annual (ARBA) 2006

This volume will enhance all collections that support the growing academic discipline of knowledge management, and be a good pillar in the reference collection of all business and management resources.

– E-Streams

This comprehensive reference does not appear to have any equivalents in print.

– Reference & User Services Quarterly 45(3)

"This is an ideal reference point for scholars, students, and reflexive practitioners in this important and emerging field. Contributions from the world's leading researchers in the field or knowledge and knowing make this an important launching pad for the next generation of work."

– Bob Galliers, Provost, Bentley College

David Schwartz masterfully orchestrates a diverse group of experts to explain the established and the coming in knowledge management...we are able to enjoy a comprehensive play that is much more than the sum of its acts.

– Prof. Dov Te'eni, Tel-Aviv University, Israel

This volume is an essential reference source for ideas as to what needs to be addressed and what we have learned about knowledge management over the past few decades.

– Prof. Laurence Prusak, Babson College, USA

The coverage of this encyclopedia is impressive. The entries are well-written, taking into account current, past, and future issues on each given topic. Its scope and breadth make it a useful resource for students and researchers alike. The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is an excellent addition to the field of study. It is recommended for research universities and especially academic business libraries.

– Hal P. Kirkwood, Jr., Purdue University, Indiana

As the first encyclopedia in the KM field, it is not enough just to have a range of decent articles on relevant topics. Schwartz and his team also need to map out the field for those who are completely new to it, and to his credit they have faced this challenge head-on.

– J.S. Edwards, Editor, Knowledge Management Research & Practice, No. 5, 2007

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Contents by Category
David Schwartz
Laurence Prusak
Knowledge Management as a Layered Multi-Disciplinary Pursuit
David Schwartz
Chapter 1
Tom Butler
Under the influence of Enlightenment epistemological thought, the social sciences have exhibited a distinct tendency to prefer deterministic1... Sample PDF
Anti-Foundational Knowledge Management
Chapter 2
David G. Schwartz
Defining and understanding knowledge is a rather broad and open-ended pursuit. We can narrow it considerably by stating that we are interested in... Sample PDF
Aristotelian View of Knowledge Management
Chapter 3
Barry E. Atkinson, Frada Burstein
Knowledge of past activities, discoveries, and events is applied by businesses to support everyday operations in much the same manner that human... Sample PDF
Biological and Information Systems Approaches
Chapter 4
Capability Maturity  (pages 24-29)
Alfs T. Berztiss
The dependence of any organization on knowledge management is clearly understood. Actually, we should distinguish between knowledge management (KM)... Sample PDF
Capability Maturity
Chapter 5
Elayne Coakes, Steve Clarke
This article looks at the concept of communities of practice (CoPs) in the workplace. The theories surrounding these types of communities are still... Sample PDF
Communitites of Practice
Chapter 6
Gabriel Cepeda-Carrion
Knowledge management has been proposed as a fundamental strategic process and the only sustainable competitive advantage for firms (Grant, 1996;... Sample PDF
Competitive Advantage of Knowledge Management
Chapter 7
Kevin R. Parker, Philip S. Nitse
Knowledge management (KM) is the process through which organizational performance is improved through better management of corporate knowledge. Its... Sample PDF
Competitive Intelligence Gathering
Chapter 8
Mark E. Nissen, Raymond E. Levitt
Systematic development of new knowledge is as important in the developing field of knowledge management (KM) as in other social science and... Sample PDF
Computational Experimentation
Chapter 9
Coopetition  (pages 58-66)
Claudia Loebbecke, Albert Angehrn
Behind the emerging digital façade, companies have started to operate in a distributed fashion. The intricate connectivity among these firms implies... Sample PDF
Chapter 10
Rose Dieng-Kuntz
An organization is made up of people interacting for common objectives, in a given structure (may be rather formal in the case of a company, an... Sample PDF
Corporate Semantic Webs
Chapter 11
Shiraj Khan, Auroop R. Ganguly, Amar Gupta
Business forecasts and predictive models are rarely perfect. A paraphrase of the Nobel winning physicist Neils Bohr is apt in this context... Sample PDF
Creating Knowledge for Business Decision Making
Chapter 12
Scott Paquette
As companies begin to develop competence in managing internal knowledge and applying it towards achieving organizational goals, they are setting... Sample PDF
Customer Knowledge Management
Chapter 13
Data Semantics  (pages 97-104)
Daniel W. Gillman
Almost every organization, public or private, for profit or non-profit, manages data in some way. Data is a major corporate resource. It is... Sample PDF
Data Semantics
Chapter 14
Simona Colucci, Tommaso Di Noia, Eugenio Di Sciascio, Francesco M. Donini, Marina Mongiello
Resource retrieval addresses the problem of finding best matches to a request among available resources, with both the request and the resources... Sample PDF
Description Logic-Based Resource Retrieval
Chapter 15
Dissemination in Portals  (pages 115-121)
Steven Woods, Stephen R. Poteet, Anne Kao, Lesley Quach
While there are many aspects to managing corporate knowledge, one key issue is how to disseminate corporate documents with appropriate context. Upon... Sample PDF
Dissemination in Portals
Chapter 16
Roberta Cuel, Paolo Bouquet, Matteo Bonifacio
In dynamic markets (characterized by the specialization of work, outsourcing processes, just-in-time and distributed productions, etc.), firms have... Sample PDF
Distributed Knowledge Management
Chapter 17
Document Search Practices  (pages 130-136)
Karen L. Corral, Ryan C. LaBrie, Robert D. St. Louis
A large portion of the knowledge of most organizations is contained in electronic documents. For users to get pertinent information from the... Sample PDF
Document Search Practices
Chapter 18
Domain Ontologies  (pages 137-144)
Matteo Cristani, Roberta Cuel
In conceptual modeling we need to consider a general level of abstraction where the domain of interest is formalized in an independent way with... Sample PDF
Domain Ontologies
Chapter 19
Dynamic Taxonomies  (pages 145-151)
Giovanni M. Sacco
End-user interactive access to complex information is one of the key functionalities of knowledge management systems. Traditionally, access... Sample PDF
Dynamic Taxonomies
Chapter 20
Shyamala C. Sivakumar
Today, most organizations need to extend lifelong learning opportunities to their employees in order to be successful in an increasingly competitive... Sample PDF
E-Learning for Knowledge Dissemination
Chapter 21
Z. M. Ma
In recent years, greater global competition is pressuring organizations to produce industrial products with the shortest possible lead times, high... Sample PDF
Engineering Design Knowledge Management
Chapter 22
Jeremy Aarons
This article surveys and explores the relationship between epistemology and knowledge management (KM). Epistemology is the branch of philosophy... Sample PDF
Epistemology and Knowledge Management
Chapter 23
Rafael Andreu, Sandra Sieber
In this article we discuss how knowledge and learning contribute to developing sustainable competitive advantages in firms. We argue that effective... Sample PDF
External and Internal Knowledge in Organizations
Chapter 24
Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, Fons Wijnhoven
As an academic field, knowledge management has concentrated on the creation, storage, retrieval, transfer, and application of knowledge within... Sample PDF
External Knowledge Integration
Chapter 25
Christie M. Fuller, Rick L. Wilson
Neural networks (NN) as classifier systems have shown great promise in many problem domains in empirical studies over the past two decades. Using... Sample PDF
Extracting Knowledge from Neural Networks
Chapter 26
Susan Imberman, Abdullah Uz Uz Tansel
With the advent of mass storage devices, databases have become larger and larger. Point-of-sale data, patient medical data, scientific data, and... Sample PDF
Frequent Itemset Mining and Association Rules
Chapter 27
Kostas Metaxiotis
The healthcare environment is changing rapidly, and effective management of the knowledge base in this area is an integral part of delivering... Sample PDF
Healthcare Knowledge Management
Chapter 28
Nicolas Prat
Knowledge management (KM) is a multidisciplinary subject, with contributions from such disciplines as information systems (IS) and information... Sample PDF
A Hierarchical Model for Knowledge Management
Chapter 29
Iris Reychav, Jacob Weisberg
Growing competitiveness, joined with the frequently occurring technological changes in the global age, raise the importance of human capital in the... Sample PDF
Human Capital in Knowledge Creation, Management and Utilization
Chapter 30
Irma Becerra-Fernandez, Rajiv Sabherwal
Rapid changes in the field of knowledge management (KM) have to a great extent resulted from the dramatic progress we have witnessed in the field of... Sample PDF
ICT and Knowledge Management Systems
Chapter 31
Hamid R. Ekbia, Noriko Hara
The role of incentives in organizational behavior has long been recognized and studied (Whyte, 1955; Hertzberg, 1959). This role becomes ever more... Sample PDF
Incentive Structures in Knowledge Management
Chapter 32
Inquiring Organizations  (pages 244-250)
Dianne Hall, David Croasdell
In order to manage knowledge and operate successfully in today’s information-intensive business environments, various organizational forms have... Sample PDF
Inquiring Organizations
Chapter 33
Integrated Modeling  (pages 251-258)
Thomas Hadrich, Ronald Maier
Modeling is a key task in order to analyze, understand, and improve business processes and organizational structures, and to support the design... Sample PDF
Integrated Modeling
Chapter 34
Doron Tauber, David G. Schwartz
Information systems research has clearly recognized that knowledge management systems (KMSs) have different characteristics and requirements than... Sample PDF
Integrating Knowledge Management with the Systems Analysis Process
Chapter 35
Dongming Xu, Huaiqing Wang
Knowledge management (KM) and e-learning are two concepts that address the requirements of lifelong learning. Over the past several years, there has... Sample PDF
Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning
Chapter 36
Intellectual Capital  (pages 274-280)
H Hsu
Today’s economy is characterized by a rapid rate of change, globalization, and knowledge-intensive products. This makes knowledge management (KM)... Sample PDF
Intellectual Capital
Chapter 37
Gil Ariely
Knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) are not one and the same, and although some overlap is apparent, the relationship is far... Sample PDF
Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management
Chapter 38
Antonio Badia
At the end of the Cold War, the intelligence situation (characterized in the past by a confrontation among equals and information scarcity) changed... Sample PDF
Intelligence and Counterterrorism Tasks
Chapter 39
Rajesh Natarajan, B. Shekar
Knowledge management (KM) transforms a firm’s knowledge-based resources into a source of competitive advantage. Knowledge creation, a KM process... Sample PDF
Interesting Knowledge Patterns in Databases
Chapter 40
Kees Boersma, Sytze Kingma
In this article, we will analyze the cultural dimension of intranets as knowledge management tools within organizations. An intranet is an... Sample PDF
Intranet and Organizational Learning
Chapter 41
Knowledge Calibration  (pages 311-316)
Ronald E. Goldsmith, Kishore Gopalakrishna Pillai
The purpose of this article is to describe the concept of knowledge calibration within the context of knowledge management. Knowledge calibration is... Sample PDF
Knowledge Calibration
Chapter 42
Knowledge Communication  (pages 317-325)
M.J. Eppler
Communicating professional knowledge is a key activity for today’s specialized workforce. The efficient and effective transfer of experiences... Sample PDF
Knowledge Communication
Chapter 43
Knowledge Creation  (pages 326-335)
Nilmini Wickramasinghe
Knowledge management (KM) is a newly emerging approach aimed at addressing today’s business challenges to increase efficiency and efficacy of core... Sample PDF
Knowledge Creation
Chapter 44
Knowledge Flow  (pages 336-343)
Vincent M. Ribière, Juan A. Román
Various models and frameworks have been used to represent the flows of knowledge in an organization. The first and most popular of these remains the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Flow
Chapter 45
Marco Paukert, Claudia Niederée, Matthias Hemmje
The success of industrial and scientific research has always been dependent on new discoveries and innovations, but tighter budgets and increasing... Sample PDF
Knowledge in Innovation Processes
Chapter 46
Knowledge Integration  (pages 352-359)
Hans Berends, Hans van der Bij, Mathieu Weggeman
In most organizations, specialized knowledge is dispersed over organization members (Tsoukas, 1996). Organization members have different educational... Sample PDF
Knowledge Integration
Chapter 47
Knowledge Intermediation  (pages 360-367)
Enrico Scarso, Ettore Bolisani
Since knowledge is increasingly regarded as the central source of competitive advantage, a “cognitive” interpretation of business activities becomes... Sample PDF
Knowledge Intermediation
Chapter 48
Leon Sterling
The agent has existed as a concept for thousands of years. In the human context, an agent is a person that performs some task on your behalf, for... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Agents
Chapter 49
Suzanne Zyngier
There are many barriers to the implementation of knowledge management (KM) strategies. These include the lack of time and financial resources... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Governance
Chapter 50
Dieter Fink, Georg Disterer
For professional service firms, such as consultants, accountants, lawyers, architects, and engineers, knowledge is a capacity to act. Knowledge can... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Professional Service Firms
Chapter 51
Guy Boy, Yvonne Barnard
Knowledge management in the design of safety-critical systems addresses the question of how designers can share, capitalize, and reuse knowledge in... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Safety-Critical Systems Analysis
Chapter 52
Clyde W. Holsapple, K. D. Joshi
Many definitions of ontology are posited in the literature (see Guarino, 2004). Here, we adopt Gruber’s (1995) view which defines ontologies as... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Ontology
Chapter 53
Frank Land, Urooj Amjad, Sevasti-Melissa Nolas
Knowledge management (KM), as a topic for academic research and practical implementation, has had a short history dating back only to the early... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Processes
Chapter 54
Rodrigo Baroni de Carvalho, Marta Arau´jo Tavares Ferreira
Due to the vagueness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for knowledge management (KM) seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Software
Chapter 55
Clyde W. Holsapple, Kiku Jones
Knowledge-based organizations (Holsapple & Whinston, 1987; Paradice & Courtney, 1989; Bennet & Bennet, 2003) are intentionally concerned with making... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Strategy Formation
Chapter 56
Murray E. Jennex
Alavi and Leidner (2001, p. 114) defined knowledge management systems (KMSs) as “IT-based systems developed to support and enhance the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Success Models
Chapter 57
Murray E. Jennex
What does it take to build a successful knowledge management system (KMS)? Knowing the essential success factors is useful as it provides... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management System Success Factors
Chapter 58
Ronald Maier, Thomas Hadrich
Knowledge management systems (KMSs) are seen as enabling technologies for an effective and efficient knowledge management (KM). However, up to date... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Systems
Chapter 59
Knowledge Organizations  (pages 451-458)
Daniel L. Davenport, Clyde W. Hosapple
An important endeavor within the field of knowledge management (KM) is to better understand the nature of knowledge organizations. These are... Sample PDF
Knowledge Organizations
Chapter 60
Atreyi Kankanhalli, Bernard C.Y. Tan, Kwok-Kee Wei
In a knowledge-based economy, organizations find it difficult to compete based upon the individual knowledge of a few organizational members. This... Sample PDF
Knowledge Producers and Consumers
Chapter 61
Knowledge Representation  (pages 467-477)
Gian Piero Zarri
In 1982, Allen Newell introduced the “knowledge level” principle (Newell, 1982) and revolutionized the traditional way of conceiving the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Representation
Chapter 62
Pankaj Kamthan, Hsueh-Ieng Pai
The reliance on past experience and expertise is critical to any development. Patterns are a reusable form of knowledge gained by experts in solving... Sample PDF
Knowledge Representation in Pattern Management
Chapter 63
Knowledge Reuse  (pages 487-492)
Ilan Oshri
Knowledge reuse is the process through which knowledge is captured, validated, stored, and retrieved. Through the reuse of knowledge, organizations... Sample PDF
Knowledge Reuse
Chapter 64
Knowledge Sharing  (pages 493-498)
William R. King
Knowledge sharing (KS) is critical to organizations that wish to use their knowledge as an asset to achieve competitive advantage. Knowledge... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing
Chapter 65
Keith L. Lindsey
To ensure continued existence, an organization must develop ways to share the knowledge that is possessed within that organization with the people... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing Barriers
Chapter 66
Carolyn McKinnell Jacobson
As Peter Drucker (2000) has pointed out, the foundation of the 21st century organization is no longer money or capital or even technology; it is... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing Between Individuals
Chapter 67
Chad Saunders
Given the reliance on knowledge-based resources over traditional assets, the professional context serves as a heightened environment in which to... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing in Legal Practice
Chapter 68
Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi
Considerable research has been done in the recent past that compares the performance of different data mining techniques on various data sets (e.g.... Sample PDF
Knowledge Structure and Data Mining Techniques
Chapter 69
Kam Hou Vat
The last decade of the 20th century saw explosive growth in discussions about knowledge—knowledge work, knowledge management, knowledge-based... Sample PDF
Knowledge Synthesis Framework
Chapter 70
Knowledge Transfer  (pages 538-543)
William R. King
The term knowledge transfer (KT) is often used in a generic sense to include any exchange of knowledge between or among individuals, teams, groups... Sample PDF
Knowledge Transfer
Chapter 71
Franz Hofer
Many policy makers and researchers consider knowledge transfer between academia and industry as one of the most promising measures to strengthen... Sample PDF
Knowledge Transfer Between Academia and Industry
Chapter 72
Knowledge Visualization  (pages 551-560)
Martin J. Eppler, Remo A. Burkhard
Making knowledge visible so that it can be better accessed, discussed, valued, or generally managed is a longstanding objective in knowledge... Sample PDF
Knowledge Visualization
Chapter 73
Learning in Organizations  (pages 561-568)
Irena Ali, Leoni Warne, Celina Pascoe
In work life, socially based learning occurs all the time. We learn from interactions between peers, genders, functional groups, and across... Sample PDF
Learning in Organizations
Chapter 74
George Tsekouras, George Roussos
The value of knowledge assets in creating competitive advantage and subsequently wealth through innovation has never been greater (Teece, 1998). It... Sample PDF
Learning Networks and Service-Oriented Architectures
Chapter 75
John Zeleznikow
Legal practice is primarily concerned with the transfer of legal knowledge from practitioners or clients. Whilst lawyers may draft contracts and... Sample PDF
Legal Knowledge Management
Chapter 76
Logic and Knowledge Bases  (pages 583-590)
J. Grant, J. Minker
Knowledge bases (KBs) must be able to capture a wide range of situations. One must be able to represent and answer questions regarding indefinite... Sample PDF
Logic and Knowledge Bases
Chapter 77
Mapping Group Knowledge  (pages 591-598)
Duncan Shaw
During group meetings it is often difficult for participants to effectively: share their knowledge to inform the outcome; acquire new knowledge from... Sample PDF
Mapping Group Knowledge
Chapter 78
William M. Farmer
Mathematical knowledge is significantly different from other kinds of knowledge. It is abstract, universal, highly structured, extraordinarily... Sample PDF
Mathematical Knowledge Management
Chapter 79
Uday Kulkarni, Ronald Freeze
As business professionals know, creating awareness of a problem and its impact is a critical first step toward the resolution of the problem. That... Sample PDF
Measuring Knowledge Management Capabilities
Chapter 80
Juan C. Real, Antonio Leal, Jose L. Roldan
The traditional way of measuring learning as a result has been through the so-called learning and experience curves. The learning curves, developed... Sample PDF
Measuring Organizational Learning as a Multidimensional Construct
Chapter 81
Ciara Heavin, Karen Neville
In an economic environment where organizations have been forced to take a step back and reevaluate their core competencies and ability to innovate... Sample PDF
Mentoring Knowledge Workers
Chapter 82
R. William Maule
Knowledge is a critical component of military operations, and the military has been an early adopter of knowledge management (KM) technologies.... Sample PDF
Military Knowledge Management
Chapter 83
Ju¨rgen Kai-Uwe Brock, Yu Josephine Zhou
Firms are consumers, producers, managers, and distributors of information (Egelhoff, 1991; Casson, 1996) and as such a repository of productive... Sample PDF
MNE Knowledge Management Across Borders and ICT
Chapter 84
Volker Derballa, Key Pousttchi
Whereas knowledge management (KM) has gained much attention in the field of management science and practice as the eminent source of competitive... Sample PDF
Mobile Knowledge Management
Chapter 85
Volker Derballa, Key Pousttchi
IT support for knowledge management (KM) is a widely discussed issue. Whereas an overemphasis on technology is often criticized, the general... Sample PDF
Mobile Technology for Knowledge Management
Chapter 86
Paul H.J. Hendriks, Ce´lio A.A. Sousa
The importance of motivation in knowledge work is generally acknowledged. With lacking motivation, the quality of the products of knowledge work is... Sample PDF
Motivation for Knowledge Work
Chapter 87
Patrick S.W. Fong
Knowledge in designing a product or rendering a service does not form a complete and coherent body of knowledge that can be precisely documented or... Sample PDF
Multidisciplinary Project Teams
Chapter 88
François Pachet
Is music a form of knowledge? Probably not, even if music is undoubtedly an important part of our cultural heritage. Music is not a type of... Sample PDF
Musical Metadata and Knowledge Management
Chapter 89
Narrative  (pages 678-682)
Dave Snowden
Narrative or the use of stories is an ancient discipline. Our ancestors evolved the ability to see the world through a set of abstractions, and... Sample PDF
Chapter 90
Dov Dori
Capturing the knowledge about existing systems and analysis and design of conceived systems requires an adequate methodology, which should be both... Sample PDF
Object-Process Methodology
Chapter 91
Ontology  (pages 694-702)
William Buchholz
An ontology comprises the explicitly articulated and shared concepts of a knowledge community or domain. These concepts are arranged formally in a... Sample PDF
Chapter 92
Fons Wijnhoven
The differences between the paradigms of knowledge management (KM) and operations management are huge. Whereas KM is rooted in the disciplines of... Sample PDF
Operational Knowledge Management
Chapter 93
Gil Ariely
This article intends to cover operational-knowledge management (KM) as implemented in the military. In particular, it is based on experience and... Sample PDF
Operational Knowledge Management in the Military
Chapter 94
N. A.D. Connell
In this article we consider some of the ways in which narrative approaches might contribute towards a better understanding of organisational... Sample PDF
Organisational Storytelling
Chapter 95
Organizational Attention  (pages 728-733)
Eyal Yaniv, David G. Schwartz
Attention is a term commonly used in education, psychiatry, and psychology. Attention can be defined as an internal cognitive process by which one... Sample PDF
Organizational Attention
Chapter 96
Dov Te’eni
All organizations depend on communication. Communication is the exchange of information between two or more people with the intent that the sender’s... Sample PDF
Organizational Communication
Chapter 97
Jean-Yves Fortier, Gilles Kassel
The main subject tackled in this article is the use of knowledge technologies to develop corporate memories or (stated more generally)... Sample PDF
Organizational Semantic Webs
Chapter 98
Organizational Structure  (pages 749-756)
Paul H.J. Hendriks
For many decades, organization scientists have paid considerable attention to the link between knowledge and organization structure. An early... Sample PDF
Organizational Structure
Chapter 99
Postmortem Reviews  (pages 757-761)
Torgeir Dingsoyr
Postmortem reviews are collective learning activities which can be organized for projects either when they end a phase or are terminated. The main... Sample PDF
Postmortem Reviews
Chapter 100
Glenn Munkvold
For organisations, the tension between integration and specialisation has become a key issue as the knowledge of work is becoming increasingly... Sample PDF
Practice-Based Knowledge Integration
Chapter 101
RDF and OWL  (pages 769-779)
Gian Piero Zarri
As Web-based content becomes an increasingly important knowledge management resource, Web-based technologies are developing to help harness that... Sample PDF
Chapter 102
Gian Piero Zarri
A big amount of important, “economically relevant” information, is buried into unstructured “narrative” information resources: This is true, for... Sample PDF
Representation Languages for Narrative Documents
Chapter 103
Rick L. Wilson, Peter A. Rosen, Mohammad Saad Al-Ahmadi
Knowledge management (KM) systems are quite diverse, but all provide increased access to organizational knowledge, which helps the enterprise to be... Sample PDF
Secure Knowledge Discovery in Databases
Chapter 104
S. Upadhyaya, H. Raghav Rao, G. Padmanabhan
As the world is getting more and more technology savvy, the collection and distribution of information and knowledge need special attention.... Sample PDF
Secure Knowledge Management
Chapter 105
Fernando Ferri, Patrizia Grifoni
A sketch is a schematic representation of an image containing a set of objects or concepts. When people need to express and communicate a new idea... Sample PDF
Sketching in Knowledge Creation and Management
Chapter 106
Social Capital Knowledge  (pages 809-817)
Daniel L. Davenport, Clyde W. Hosapple
Organizations have capabilities for creating and sharing knowledge (intellectual capital) that give them their distinctive advantage over other... Sample PDF
Social Capital Knowledge
Chapter 107
Social Network Analysis  (pages 818-825)
David J. Dekker, Paul H.J. Hendriks
In knowledge management (KM), one perspective is that knowledge resides in individuals who interact in groups. Concepts as communities-of-practice... Sample PDF
Social Network Analysis
Chapter 108
Reed E. Nelson, H.Y. Sonya Hsu
Social networks—the sets of relations that link individuals and collectives—have implications for the speed and effectiveness with which knowledge... Sample PDF
A Social Network Perspective on Knowledge Management
Chapter 109
Tacit Knowledge Sharing  (pages 833-839)
Syed Z. Shariq, Morten Thanning Vendelo
When people solve complex problems, they bring knowledge and experience to the situation, and as they engage in problem solving they create, use... Sample PDF
Tacit Knowledge Sharing
Chapter 110
Frada Burstein, Henry Linger
In modern organizations, the major role of knowledge management is supporting knowledge work. The concept of knowledge work assumes not only task... Sample PDF
Task-Based Knowledge Management
Chapter 111
Taxonomies of Knowledge  (pages 848-854)
Phillip Ein-Dor
Knowledge management has become a major application of information technology (IT) and a major focus of IT research. Thus, it becomes increasingly... Sample PDF
Taxonomies of Knowledge
Chapter 112
Frank Land, Sevasti-Melissa Nolas, Urooj Amjad
The last decade of the 20th century saw the emergence of a new discipline within the realm of information systems, which became known as knowledge... Sample PDF
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management
Chapter 113
Sue Newell
Knowledge integration is a process whereby several individuals share and combine their information to collectively create new knowledge (Okhuysen &... Sample PDF
Understanding Innovation Processes
Chapter 114
Sajjad M. Jasimuddin, N.A.D. Connell, Jonathan H. Klein
It is generally recognized that Walsh and Ungson (1991) “provided the first integrative framework for thinking about organizational memory”... Sample PDF
Understanding Organizational Memory
Chapter 115
Virtue-Nets  (pages 876-883)
David Croasdell, Y. Ken Wang
David Skyrme (1999) has observed that knowledge workers exploit knowledge generated from business activities and turn it into business... Sample PDF
Chapter 116
Work and Knowledge  (pages 884-891)
Tom Butler, Ciaran Murphy
It is widely believed that knowledge work is a relatively new phenomenon and that it constitutes the main form of activity in post-industrial... Sample PDF
Work and Knowledge
Chapter 117
Alfs T. Berztiss
The business reengineering movement has left two lasting benefits: One is the identification of an organization as a set of processes (Davenport... Sample PDF
Workflow Systems and Knowledge Management
About the Editor
Index of Key Terms



Albert Einstein once said, “Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of truth and knowledge is shipwrecked by the laughter of the Gods.” Fortunately Einstein did not extend that fate to those who limit their judgmental activities to the management of knowledge.

But an encyclopedia? The very term brings to mind images of heavy dusty tomes documenting centuries of study. So when Mehdi Khosrow-Pour of IGI approached me with the idea for an encyclopedia of knowledge management (KM}), my initial reaction was one of skepticism. Would it not be presumptuous, I thought, to take a field as young as knowledge management and compile an encyclopedia?

Then I took a good look at what has been going on in KM-related research over the past two decades. Over 15 peer-reviewed research journals with major aspects of KM as a primary focus producing over 500 articles per annum as well as major annual conferences such as KMEurope (http://www.kmeurope.com) and smaller events covering everything from practical aspects of knowledge management (http://www.dke.univie.ac.at/pakm2004/) to the knowledge and argument visualization (http://www.graphicslink.demon.co.uk/IV05/).

Burden’s (2000) KM bibliography, which encompasses both research and industry/trade publications, cites over 900 books and a whopping 8,000 articles devoted to the field. In Rollett’s (2003) KM bibliography we are treated to over 1,000 academic research articles on KM.

During the period this volume was being compiled at least two new peer-reviewed KM research journals were announced:

Journal of Knowledge Management Studies (Inderscience Publishers)
International Journal of Knowledge Management (Idea Group Publishing)

All this, in addition to the established list of more general information systems and information science journals and conference venues that serve as a forum knowledge management research. And of course an abundance of industry magazines and newsletters dedicated to the understanding, development, and adoption of organizational knowledge management have been established.

It became clear that not only is there a need to create an authoritative repository of knowledge management concepts, issues, and techniques; but an even stronger compelling need to create a logical structure that maps out the field of knowledge management across its diverse disciplines.


How does this differ from a traditional encyclopedia? Every scientific and intellectual pursuit presents a spectrum of knowledge ranging from the speculative to the experimental to the proven to the well-established. An encyclopedia traditionally presents definitive articles that describe well-established and accepted concepts or events. While we have avoided the speculative extreme, this volume does include a number of entries that may be closer to the ‘experimental’ end of the spectrum than the ‘well-established’ end. The need to do so is driven by the youth of the discipline and the desire to not only document the established, but to provide a resource for those who are pursuing the experimental and speculative.

Alavi and Leidner, in their oft-cited Review of Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems (2001) bring three pointed conclusions to the fore:

There is no single clear approach to the development of knowledge management systems—it is a multi-faceted endeavor.

Knowledge management is a dynamic, continuous organizational phenomenon of interdependent processes with varying scope and changing characteristics.

Information technology can be used to extend knowledge management beyond traditional storage and retrieval of coded knowledge.

Not only does this encyclopedia reinforce those conclusions, it relishes and thrives in the complexity and diversity to which they allude. The systems and technology perspective is but one of many that have been dealt with in this volume. While we do not wish to lose focus on our main goal of managing knowledge in organizations, in order to better achieve that goal it is necessary to look at areas of study as diverse as epistemology and anthropology in order to map the future directions of knowledge management.

With that goal in mind, a wide net was cast in the Call for Papers in an attempt to attract researchers from many relevant disciples. The resulting articles that appear in this volume were selected through a double-blind review process followed by one or more rounds of revision prior to acceptance. Treatment of certain topics is not exclusive according to a given school or approach, and you will find a number of topics tackled from different perspectives with differing approaches. A field as dynamic as KM needs discussion, disagreement, contradiction— and of course wherever possible, consensus. But we must not sacrifice any of the former on the altar of the latter.

To that end, each author has provided a list of key terms and definitions deemed essential to the topic of his or her article. Rather than aggregate and filter these terms to produce a single “encyclopedic” definition, we have preferred instead to let the authors stand by their definition and allow each reader to interpret and understand each article ccording to the specific terminological twist taken by its author(s). The comprehensive Key Term Index provided at the back of this volume provides pointers to each concept and term in its multiple incarnations.


The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is divided into six logical categories:

1. Theoretical Foundations of Knowledge Management
2. Processes of Knowledge Management
3. Organizational and Social Aspects of Knowledge Management
4. Managerial Aspects of Knowledge Management
5. Technological Aspects of Knowledge Management
6. Application-Specific Knowledge Management Issues

The Contents by Category will help you find articles based on this logical section structure.

Within each of the six major categories are one or more articles on each of the topics that comprise that category—often multiple articles on different aspects of a given topic.

Physically, however, the articles appear in sequential alphabetical order based on the title of the article. Printing the articles in alphabetical order was a decision made based on the overall requirements of Idea Group Publishing’s complete series of reference encyclopedias. I expect however that our readers will have no difficulty following a content-oriented logical map to an alphabetically structured physical article representation.


The first five sections are the result of what I would characterize as a layered approach to the discipline of knowledge management. It is this layered view, as shown in Figure 1 that I have sought to reinforce with this encyclopedic volume.

Consider the view presented in Figure 1 giving a holistic view of the knowledge management and its foundations. The central core of philosophies (the middle) must inform our choice of practical knowledge management processes (the first ring). These processes must be implemented and adapted to address managerial, social and organizational needs (the second ring). Finally the implementation of KM process to meet our organizational needs must be supported by and implemented through a set of relevant information technologies (the outer ring).

The primary processes that make up knowledge management in practice should ideally derive from the core theories. Figure 1 illustrates a number of the philosophers whose theories of knowledge, economics, and business form the core of knowledge management. Understanding these philosophies is fundamental to our common endeavor. Without grounding our processes in their theoretical soil we run the very real risk of simply cobbling together processes on an opportunistic basis. We must, in a disciplined manner, turn to our theoretical core in determining the essential processes of KM. In cases where experience begets a process that has yet to be identified with a core theory one mustn’t belittle the need to eventually discover that grounding. At the end of the day this is what will help distinguish fad from enduring science.

The layer of processes presents one view of the different stages, activities, and cycles that comprise knowledge management. Processes need to be pragmatic, in terms of our ability to implement them, comprehensive so that we can achieve an end-to-end solutions, replicable and generalizable so they can be applied across a wide range of organizations.

That is not to say that these processes should be devoid of organizational context. On the contrary, it is the function of the third layer, that of organizational, social and managerial considerations, to mold, combine, and innovate using the KM processes in order to meet their well-defined theory-driven goals.

Encasing all is the outer ring—that of the enabling technologies that so often seem to be driving KM rather than facilitating it. Figure 1 is, of course, representative rather than exhaustive. Additional technologies and new applications of existing technologies will continue to expand this layer.

Being driven by technology is not necessarily negative. Consider how the development of the electron microscope led to the discovery of a plethora of atomic and elemental behaviors. The observation of these behaviors led to the development of new theories upon which those discoveries were validated and new discoveries predicated. So too the computing, storage, and communications technologies available today are enabling the implementation and study of new types of knowledge representation, sharing, communications, and interactions.

As the theoreticians among us deepen their understanding of the many diverse technologies that have a positive impact on KM, they can experimentally apply those technologies more effectively and in innovative ways. As the technologists among us are enriched with a solid theoretical foundation they can focus their efforts on the most promising application areas and most difficult theoretical challenges. And our social scientists provide us with lenses through which we can view both theory and technology, and perhaps build the bridge between theory and praxis. Everyone benefits from a richer more constructive research and development environment.


As a Research Reference

The primary purpose of this volume is to serve as a research reference work. To that end extensive indexing has been undertaken to allow the reader quick access to primary and secondary entries related to keywords and topics. The six logical sections and the list of topics provided for each section will enable the reader to locate and delve deeply into any given area of knowledge management from their desired perspective.

As a Course Reference

The sheer comprehensiveness combined with the logical structure of this volume also lends itself towards use as a reference for knowledge management courses.

Selecting two to three articles from each of the six section results in many possible study sequences for a comprehensive introductory course in knowledge management. Alternatively, the first five logical sections of this volume can be used individually as the curricular foundation for courses in: knowledge management theory, designing KM processes, organizational KM, managing KM, and technologies for knowledge management respectively.


The need for an Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management is driven by the tremendous growth and diversity that has become associated with knowledge management. Whether treated as an emerging discipline (Croadsell & Jennex, 2005; Schwartz, 2005), or a possibly recycled concept (Spiegler, 2000), knowledge management will continue to make its mark on organizations of all forms and sizes. The need to help organizations manage their knowledge has been extolled in nearly 2 decade’s worth of management literature. In order to truly understand and appreciate what goes into making knowledge management work, we need to approach it from theoretical, procedural, social, managerial and technical perspectives. The layered approach can help us achieve those objectives.

The process of editing this encyclopedia has been enlightening. Most enjoyable has been the interaction with the authors, some of whom have appeared from the most unexpected of places, and others who have come forward from established bastions of knowledge management research.

It is my sincere hope that this volume serves not only as a reference to KM researchers, both novice and veteran, but also as a resource for those coming from the hundreds of disciplines and organizations upon which knowledge management has, should, and will have an everlasting impact.


Alavi, M., & Leidner, D.E. (2001). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 1(25), 107-136.

Burden, P.R. (2000). Knowledge management: The bibliography. Information Today Inc. Retrieved November 2004, from http://domin.dom.edu/faculty/SRIKANT/lis88001/kmbib.html

Jennex, M.E., & Croasdell, D. (2005). Is knowledge management a discipline? International Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(1).

Rollett, H. (2003). Knowledge management bibliography. Retrieved November 2004, from http://www2. iicm.edu/herwig/kmbib.html

Schwartz, D.G. (2005). The emerging discipline of knowledge management. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(1).

Spiegler, I. (2000). Knowledge management: A new idea or a recycled concept? Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 14(3).

David G. Schwartz
Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Dr. David Schwartz’s career spans both academia and business. Since 1998 he has served as Editor of the journal Internet Research. David’s research has appeared in publications such as IEEE Intelligent Systems, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communications, Information Systems, Knowledge Management Research & Practice, and the Journal of Organizational Behavior. His books include Cooperating Heterogeneous Systems, Internet-Based Knowledge Management and Organizational Memory, and the Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. He has been a visiting scholar at Columbia University, Department of Biomedical Informatics and Monash University, Faculty of Information Technology. David’s main research interests are Knowledge Management, Ontology, Internet-based Systems, and Computer-mediated Communications. He serves as a board member of Psagot Investment House, Cham Foods Ltd. (TASE), and Copernic (NASDAQ: CNIC). David received his Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University; MBA from McMaster University; and B.Sc. from the University of Toronto.


Editorial Board

  • Mark Ackerman
  • University of Michigan, USA

  • Monica Divitini
  • Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology, Norway

  • Robert Galliers
  • Bentley College, USA and London School of Economics, UK

  • Dan Holtshouse
  • Xerox Corporation, USA

  • Murray Jennex
  • San Diego State University, USA

  • William R. King
  • University of Pittsburgh, USA

  • Dorothy Leidner
  • Baylor University, USA

  • Pat Molholt
  • Columbia University, USA

  • Sue Newell
  • University of London Royal Holloway, UK and Bentley College, USA

  • Laurence Prusak
  • Babson College, USA

  • Dave Snowden
  • The Cynefin Centre, UK

  • Leon Sterling
  • University of Melbourne, Australia

  • Dov Te'eni
  • Tel-Aviv University, Israel

  • Fons Wijnhoven
  • University of Twente, The Netherlands