Production, Publication, and Use of Educational Multimedia Content in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities in Real World Technology Projects

Production, Publication, and Use of Educational Multimedia Content in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities in Real World Technology Projects

Joni A. Amorim (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil), Carlos Machado (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil), Rosana G.S. Miskulin (Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Brazil) and Mauro S. Miskulin (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-400-2.ch026
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Abstract

The production of quality educational multimedia content involves both its publication and its use, considering aspects ranging from metadata standards to teachers’ guides. In Brazil, there are many challenges and opportunities in real world technology projects; particularly, in the field of education. Challenges may involve not only strategy and project engineering issues, but also the management of change in the creation of virtual groups focused on multimedia production. This scenario has created a platform from which it was possible to suggest a framework for an educational multimedia factory virtual group interaction. Thus, both software implementation for the proposed framework and the management of change are discussed from the perspective of a large-scale multimedia production, at UNICAMP, Brazil. This chapter intends to bring about some of the complexities involved in a pioneer project that can provide High School students with free content by simply connecting to the Internet.
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Introduction

Digital convergence is finally happening (Amorim, 2003): all separate media now become digital and come to be delivered via global network, improving education quality. In this new context, change management comes into play (Bates, 1999; Conner, 1993; Frame, 1994): teachers demand both digital content and training in order to incorporate multimedia in their daily practice. After considering topics such as accessibility, change management and multimedia, this chapter presents two initiatives from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil. One is related to teacher training in educational technology (CENP, 2007), while the other involves large-scale multimedia production for teaching (MEC, 2007). This chapter discusses the production, publication and use of educational multimedia content, presenting, at the same time, a Brazilian perspective on the many challenges and opportunities experienced in real world technology projects.

In education, digital technologies are becoming increasingly important. The use of multimedia can combine text, images, full-motion video, and sound into an integrated package. The authoring process grows in complexity with time due to the increasing multitude of possibilities available: from traditional hypertext to Web-based audio broadcast via RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed. This growing complexity of modern educational projects and the need for a more efficient production of quality courses stimulates the development of new instructional design approaches.

Improving quality in distance, flexible and ICT-based education turned out to be a priority for most institutions in developing countries, where the digital divide is just one of the many challenges. UNICAMP was established in 1966, as a public university funded by the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In 2007, the University had 6.200 fiber optics-connected computers, 1.800 professors, 15.696 undergraduate students and 17.275 graduate students enrolled in different courses. UNICAMP is one of the most distinguished Brazilian academic institutions and seeks to contribute to solving social problems, through education and research, as well as through services to the community at large. The University accounts for 15% of the total scientific production in Brazil and manages projects both in technology development and in technology education. In 2007, the Graduate Programs obtained the best evaluation among Brazilian universities by the National Coordination for the Improvement of Graduate Professionals (CAPES), accounting for 11% of the Ph.D. degrees granted in Brazil.

The incorporation of the best methods and practices is now mandatory in order to achieve a balance among time, cost, scope, quality, risk and customer satisfaction (Mulcahy, 2006). Improving quality and productivity standards in an organization is a difficult challenge; especially because it is also difficult for people to accept changes.

Change is a transformation, a modification, an alteration, a variation or a deviation. It is a transition from one state, condition, or phase to another. Never before has that changed so fast with such a continuous intensification. In the field of education, massive change comes from ever-advancing technology such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and interactive digital television (iDTV), suggesting that learning how to better manage change is an important goal to be achieved. A better Management of Change (MoC) would enhance the chances of increasing organizational efficiency and effectiveness even when changes are attempted. The literature on MoC (Bates, 1999; Conner, 1993; Frame, 1994) indicates that there is a basic axiom according to which individuals operate: life is most effective and efficient when people move at a speed that allows them to appropriately incorporate changes, absorbing them with minimum dysfunctional behavior. In education, what happens when teachers are overwhelmed by more change than they can absorb?

Key Terms in this Chapter

Resilience: May be understood as the ability to recover readily from illness, depression, adversity, or the like in a context of impacting change.

Management of Change (MoC): Management methodologies to prevent, predict, track, estimate impacts of changes on a system.

Software Factory: Development environment configured to support the rapid development of a specific type of application.

Framework: A basic conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues; values, assumptions, concepts, and practices that constitute a perspective of viewing reality.

Metadata: May be understood as data describing data, resources or multimedia content.

Multimedia Factory: Based on the concept of software factory, it would be a development environment configured to support the rapid development of different types of digital media, which may include audio, video, software or hypertext, among others; while a mature software factory would intend to have high levels of code reuse, a mature digital multimedia factory would intend to reuse as many parts of products as possible.

Community of Practice (CoP): KM social network that tends to be informal, or to have a low degree of formality, in a context of self-selected assignment and voluntary participation.

E-Learning: The process of learning online, especially via the Internet.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Robert K. Hiltbrand
Preface
Terry T. Kidd
Acknowledgment
Terry T. Kidd
Chapter 1
James W. Price Jr., Pamila Dembla
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The Tao To Understanding Enterprise It Project Complexity: Sun-Tzu's Five Factors Revisited
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Chapter 2
A. J. Gilbert Silvius
This chapter describes a study into the expected development of the competences of the project manager in the year 2027. The study was performed... Sample PDF
Project Management 2027: The Future of Project Management
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Chapter 3
Gregory J. Skulmoski, Francis T. Hartman
The purpose of this research was to investigate the soft competencies by project phase that IT project managers, hybrid and technical team members... Sample PDF
The Progression Towards Project Management Competence
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Chapter 4
Ralf Müller
This chapter addresses project managers’ leadership styles, mainly from the perspective of technology projects. It starts by defining and outlining... Sample PDF
Leadership in Technology Project Management
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Chapter 5
Melanie S. Karas, Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Kerry S. Webb
A project manager’s role on any project goes far beyond task-related deliverables. Although the project manager must be able to effectively manage... Sample PDF
The Importance of Leadership in Project Management
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Chapter 6
Jaby Mohammed
This chapter introduces the concept of technology management by objectives. Technology is one of the fastest moving elements in the 21st Century... Sample PDF
Technology Management by Objectives (TMO)
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Chapter 7
Gary Pan
The goal of any product is to be used. In a very real sense, people judge the success or failure of any product by the extent to which it is used by... Sample PDF
Examining Stakeholders' Roles in Influencing IT Project Cancellation Decisions
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Chapter 8
Daniel W. Surry
This chapter will discuss more than 20 system development life cycles (SDLC) found in the Information Technology project management arena, whereby... Sample PDF
Bringing the User into the Project Development Process
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Chapter 9
Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Asim A. El Sheikh, Jeihan M. Abu-Tayeh, Maha T. El-Mahied
This chapter uses the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory and examines a business case, highlighting certain gaps in the theory. First, confusion... Sample PDF
Information Technology Projects System Development Life Cycles: Comparative Study
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Chapter 10
Francisco Chia Cua, Tony C. Garrett
This chapter introduces the Firm-Level Value Creation Model as a means of planning Information Systems projects based on their potential for... Sample PDF
Analyzing Diffusion and Value Creation Dimensions of a Business Case of Replacing Enterprise Systems
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Chapter 11
Otavio Prospero Sanchez, Alberto Luiz Albertin
In this chapter the authors investigate the management of service innovation projects; can ICT based service innovation be facilitated by... Sample PDF
IT Project Planning based on Business Value Generation
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Chapter 12
Bendik Bygstad, Gjermund Lanestedt
This chapter provides a framework for technology project implementation in systems where the human is an integral element of the completed project.... Sample PDF
Managing ICT Based Service Innovation
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Chapter 13
Katy E. Ellis
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Employee Preparation, Participation, and Performance
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Chapter 14
Jaby Mohammed, Ali Alavizadeh
This chapter provides a fundamental yet comprehensive coverage of quality management. Bringing managers and engineers the most up-to-date quality... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance in Project Management
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Chapter 15
Sohail Anwar
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Quality Management and Control
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Chapter 16
Dawn M. Owens, Deepak Khazanchi
Successful implementation of IT (information technology) projects is a critical strategic and competitive necessity for firms in all industrial... Sample PDF
Software Quality Assurance
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Chapter 17
Fayez Ahmad Albadri
An overwhelming number of Information Technology (IT) projects experience persistent problems and failures. This chapter reflects on some of the... Sample PDF
IPRM: The Integrated Project Risk Model
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Chapter 18
Technical Risk Management  (pages 283-294)
Pete Hylton
In today’s highly competitive industrial environment, many high-tech businesses are using Technical Risk Management (TRM) in their engineering... Sample PDF
Technical Risk Management
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Chapter 19
Lauren Fancher
IT projects across all sectors are relying on more iterative methodologies that can employ early and frequent assessment and evaluation processes in... Sample PDF
Early, Often, and Repeat: Assessment and Evaluation Methodology for Ensuring Stakeholder Satisfaction with Information Technology Projects
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Chapter 20
Chad J. Cray
Considering the high failure rate of information technology (IT) projects over the last 40 years, project managers should use all the tools at their... Sample PDF
A Needle in a Haystack: Choosing the Right Development Methodology for IT Projects
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Chapter 21
Mysore Narayanan
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Project Management Assessment Methods
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Chapter 22
Mario Vanhoucke
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Chapter 23
Michele De Lorenzi
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Technology Exploration Process: From Technology to New Services
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Chapter 24
Henryk R. Marcinkiewicz
Three models structure the planning for technology integration into instruction. Institutional needs are assessed for three dimensions suggested in... Sample PDF
Planning for Integrating Technology
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Chapter 25
Michael Crow
Kansas State University has ensured greatly increased academic involvement in the implementation of its new student information system through the... Sample PDF
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Chapter 26
Joni A. Amorim, Carlos Machado, Rosana G.S. Miskulin, Mauro S. Miskulin
The production of quality educational multimedia content involves both its publication and its use, considering aspects ranging from metadata... Sample PDF
Production, Publication, and Use of Educational Multimedia Content in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities in Real World Technology Projects
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Chapter 27
Hasan Tinmaz
Technology planning is an indispensable activity for all higher education institutions nowadays. The major purpose of the technology planning is to... Sample PDF
Instructional Technology Plans for Higher Education Institutions
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Chapter 28
Patricia McGee, Veronica Diaz
The rapid proliferation of e-learning tools that offer low or no cost investment and are not housed on institutional servers, has made it very... Sample PDF
Shifting from Classroom to Online Delivery
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Chapter 29
Bimal P. Nepal, Leslie Monplaisir
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Lean and Global Product Development in Auto Industry
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Chapter 30
Debra D. Orosbullard
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Future Trends: Global Projects & Virtual Teaming
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Chapter 31
Geoffrey Corb, Stephen Hellen
Social networking technologies—such as Wikis, blogs and instant messaging—are increasingly being employed in business settings to support... Sample PDF
Wiki-enabled Technology Management
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Chapter 32
Owen G. McGrath
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