The Sense of Security and Trust

The Sense of Security and Trust

Yuko Murayama (Iwate Prefectural University, Japan), Carl Hauser (Washington State University, USA), Natsuko Hikage (Iwate Prefectural University, Japan) and Basabi Chakraborty (Iwate Prefectural University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-132-2.ch029
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Abstract

The sense of security, identified with the Japanese term, Anshin, is identified as an important contributor to emotional trust. This viewpoint suggests that designers should consider the subjective sense of security as well as objective security measures in designing systems and their user interfaces. A survey of users reveals both the personal and the environmental factors contributing to the users’ sense of security when using the Internet. A more encompassing view of Anshin as including safety, reliability, and other non-functional properties of systems may provide additional insights for system design.
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Background

In Japanese, the term Anshin is commonly used to mean what we have called the sense of security. The word can refer to not only security against a threat but also to express confidence in an outcome, such as in the context of having Anshin that I will be on time for my flight because I am on a train scheduled to reach the airport with time to spare.

The use of the term Anshin in technological contexts has been investigated primarily in the field of risk communication—the process by which nuclear power plant providers, experts, and residents of a plant area interact in order so that residents can get Anshin regarding their safety (Kikkawa et al., 2003, pp.1-8). In the field of risk communication, Kikkawa identified two Anshin states that might be reached, one with knowledge and the other without knowledge. When one has knowledge of technology and feels secure, one is in the state of Anshin with knowledge. On the other hand, when one does not have such knowledge and yet feels secure, one is in the state of Anshin without knowledge. Anshin with knowledge is achieved by active learning and seeking information by users, as well as when technology experts provide information to users.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Cognitive Trust: According to Lewis and Weigert (1985), the cognitive part of trust is the trusting behavior motivated by “good rational reasons” why the object of trust merits trust (p.972). In the e-commerce area, Xiao Komiak and Benbasat define cognitive trust as “a trustor’s rational expectation that a trustee will have the necessary competence, benevolence, and integrity to be relied upon” (2004, p.187). Cognitive trust has been called simply “trust” in many literatures, however, they call it cognitive when they compare it with emotional trust.

Anshin: A Japanese noun which is composed of two words, viz. “An” and “Shin.” “An” indicates to ease, and “Shin” is mind or worry. It means the sense of security as well as the senses of safety, reliability, availability and privacy.

Trust: Trust is a particular level of one’s subjective probability that another’s action would be favorable to oneself from the psychological viewpoint (Gambetta, 1988),. Gambetta states that “trust (or symmetrically distrust) is a particular level of subjective probability with which an agent will perform a particular action, both before the trustor can monitor such action (or independently of his capacity of ever to be able to monitor it) and in a context in which it affects its own action” (p.217).

The Sense of Security: The emotional part of security. It is concerned with how users feel when they use security tools.

Security: According to Oxford English dictionary (Oxford English Dictionary, 1933, vol.9), security is the condition of being protected from or not exposed to danger, or freedom from doubt. In this chapter we are concerned with security in the former terms. Generally information security has been concerned more with security technology including cryptography, steganography, authentication, access control and secure protocols.

Trust Model: The trust model proposed by Marsh (1994) is one of the first works which proposed a formal treatment integrating different trust concepts. According to Marsh, major early contributions to understanding trust have come from the areas of sociology, social psychology and philosophy mainly in work carried out by Deutsch, Luhman, Berber and Gambetta. Many attempts have been made to represent trust mathematically and a number of computational trust models, mostly based on Gambetta’s definition have emerged for risk management mechanism in on-line communications. The goal of a computational trust model is to assist users with decision making.

Emotional Trust: According to Lewis and Weigert (1985, p. 972) emotional trust is trusting behavior motivated primarily by strong positive affect for the object of trust. Emotional trust is defined as emotional security, or feeling secure, or comfortable by Xiao & Benbasat (2003).

Risk Communication: The communication between nuclear power plant providers and experts and the residents of a plant area. The providers and experts communicate about risks of a nuclear power plant so that residents will get Anshin (Kikkawa et al., 2003, pp.1-8).

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Table of Contents
Foreword
John Walp
Preface
Manish Gupta, Raj Sharman
Chapter 1
C. Warren Axelrod
This chapter examines the impact of catastrophes on information security and suggests who might have responsibility for maintaining an appropriate... Sample PDF
Responsibilities and Liabilities with Respect to Catastrophes
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Chapter 2
David Porter
This chapter discusses the latest developments in the shifting threat landscape and their impact on the world of information security. It describes... Sample PDF
The Complex New World of Information Security
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Chapter 3
Ahmed Awad E. Ahmed
In recent years, many studies have highlighted the unprecedented growth in security threats from multiple and varied sources faced by corporate, as... Sample PDF
Employee Surveillance Based on Free Text Detection of Keystroke Dynamics
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Chapter 4
Arunabha Mukhopadhyay, Samir Chatterjee, Debashis Saha, Ambuj Mahanti, Samir K. Sadhukhan
An online business organization spends millions of dollars on firewalls, anti-virus, intrusion detection systems, digital signature, and encryption... Sample PDF
E-Risk Insurance Product Design: A Copula Based Bayesian Belief Network Model
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Chapter 5
Guoling Lao
E-commerce mode aggravates information asymmetry so that honesty-credit problems become more serious. This chapter discusses the honesty-credit... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Security and Honesty-Credit
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Chapter 6
Zhixiong Zhang, Xinwen Zhang, Ravi Sandhu
This chapter addresses the problem that traditional role-base access control (RBAC) models do not scale up well for modeling security policies... Sample PDF
Towards a Scalable Role and Organization Based Access Control Model with Decentralized Security Administration
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Chapter 7
Chandan Mazumdar
There has been an unprecedented thrust in employing Computers and Communication technologies in all walks of life. The systems enabled by... Sample PDF
Enterprise Information System Security: A Life-Cycle Approach
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Chapter 8
Peter O. Orondo
Most companies would agree that securing their information assets is worth some investment. It is thus plausible to assume that low levels of IT... Sample PDF
An Alternative Model of Information Security Investment
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Chapter 9
George O.M. Yee
The growth of the Internet is increasing the deployment of e-services in such areas as e-commerce, e-learning, and e-health. In parallel, the... Sample PDF
Avoiding Pitfalls in Policy-Based Privacy Management
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Chapter 10
Supriya Singh
Enabling customers to influence the way they are represented in the bank’s databases, is one of the major personalization, responsiveness, and... Sample PDF
Privacy and Banking in Australia
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Chapter 11
Madhusudhanan Chandrasekaran, Shambhu Upadhyaya
Phishing scams pose a serious threat to end-users and commercial institutions alike. E-mail continues to be the favorite vehicle to perpetrate such... Sample PDF
A Multistage Framework to Defend Against Phishing Attacks
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Chapter 12
Ghita Kouadri Mostefaoui, Patrick Brézillon
In recent years, the security research community has been very active in proposing different techniques and algorithms to face the proliferating... Sample PDF
A New Approach to Reducing Social Engineering Impact
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Chapter 13
Yang Wang
Privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), which constitute a wide array of technical means for protecting users’ privacy, have gained considerable... Sample PDF
Privacy-Enhancing Technologies
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Chapter 14
Douglas P. Twitchell
This chapter introduces and defines social engineering, a recognized threat to the security of information systems. It also introduces a taxonomy... Sample PDF
Social Engineering and its Countermeasures
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Chapter 15
Tom S. Chan
Social networking has become one of the most popular applications on the Internet since the burst of the dot-com bubble. Apart from being a haven... Sample PDF
Social Networking Site: Opportunities and Security Challenges
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Chapter 16
James W. Ragucci, Stefan A. Robila
Fraudulent e-mails, known as phishing attacks, have brought chaos across the digital world causing billions of dollars of damage. These attacks are... Sample PDF
Designing Antiphishing Education
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Chapter 17
Serkan Ada
This chapter discusses the recent theories used in information security research studies. The chapter initially introduces the importance of the... Sample PDF
Theories Used in Information Security Research: Survey and Agenda
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Chapter 18
Samuel Liles
Information assurance education is an interdisciplinary endeavor that only when taken as a holistic and inclusive educational activity can be... Sample PDF
Information Assurance and Security Curriculum Meeting the SIGITE Guidelines
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Chapter 19
Gary Hinson
This chapter highlights the broad range of factors that are relevant to the design of information security awareness programs, primarily by... Sample PDF
Information Security Awareness
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Chapter 20
Nick Pullman, Kevin Streff
Security training and awareness is often overlooked or not given sufficient focus in many organizations despite being a critical component of a... Sample PDF
Creating a Security Education, Training, and Awareness Program
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Chapter 21
E. Kritzinger, S.H von Solms
This chapter introduces information security within the educational environments that utilize electronic resources. The education environment... Sample PDF
Information Security Within an E-Learning Environment
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Chapter 22
Donald Murphy, Manish Gupta, H.R. Rao
We present five emerging areas in information security that are poised to bring the radical benefits to the information security practice and... Sample PDF
Research Notes on Emerging Areas of Conflict in Security
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Chapter 23
C. Orhan Orgun
This chapter develops a linguistically robust encryption system, LunabeL, which converts a message into syntactically and semantically innocuous... Sample PDF
The Human Attack in Linguistic Steganography
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Chapter 24
Sérgio Tenreiro de Magalhães, Kenneth Revett, Henrique M.D. Santos, Leonel Duarte dos Santos, André Oliveira, César Ariza
The traditional approach to security has been the use of passwords. They provide the system with a barrier to access what was quite safe in the... Sample PDF
Using Technology to Overcome the Password's Contradiction
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Chapter 25
Antonio Cerone
Reducing the likelihood of human error in the use of interactive systems is increasingly important. Human errors could not only hinder the correct... Sample PDF
Formal Analysis of Security in Interactive Systems
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Chapter 26
Tejaswini Herath
It is estimated that over 1 billion people now have access to the Internet. This unprecedented access and use of Internet by individuals around the... Sample PDF
Internet Crime: How Vulnerable Are You? Do Gender, Social Influence and Education play a Role in Vulnerability?
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Chapter 27
Jarrod Trevathan
Shill bidding is where spurious bids are introduced into an auction to drive up the final price for the seller, thereby defrauding legitimate... Sample PDF
Detecting Shill Bidding in Online English Auctions
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Chapter 28
Carsten Röcker, Carsten Magerkurth, Steve Hinske
In this chapter we present a novel concept for personalized privacy support on large public displays. In the first step, two formative evaluations... Sample PDF
Information Security at Large Public Displays
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Chapter 29
Yuko Murayama, Carl Hauser, Natsuko Hikage, Basabi Chakraborty
The sense of security, identified with the Japanese term, Anshin, is identified as an important contributor to emotional trust. This viewpoint... Sample PDF
The Sense of Security and Trust
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About the Contributors