Artificial Intelligence Review

Artificial Intelligence Review

Amal Kilani (University of Gabes Tunisia, Tunisia), Ahmed Ben Hamida (University of Sfax, Tunisia) and Habib Hamam (University of Moncton, Canada)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch010

Abstract

In this paper, we present a profound literature review of the Artificial Intelligence (AI). After defining it, we briefly cover its history and enumerate its principal fields of application. We name for example information system, commerce, image processing, human-computer interaction, data compression, robotics, route planning, etc. Moreover, the test that defines an artificially intelligent system, called The Turing test, is also defined and detailed. Afterwards, we describe some AI tools such as Fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and swarm intelligence. Special attention will be given to neural networks and fuzzy logic. We also present the future research directions and ethics.
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Background

Artificial intelligence (AI) may be defined as the branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior (Luger & Stubblefield, 1993). It is a research area and a field of technology that creates both software and hardware sophisticated features in order to include virtual artificial agents. It can be divided into two categories based on thinking and acting shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

AI categories

Source: Russell & Norvig, 2009

Alan Turing, a British mathematician, introduced the 'Turing test' for intelligence, referred to the accredited test as the imitation game (Hodges, 2002). The famous test appeared in Turing's paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, was published in October 1950 in the philosophical journal, Mind (Turing, 1950). In fact, this test was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence (Russell & Norvig, 2009).

This Turing test states four conditions for a computer to be called an intelligent machine. The first is the natural language processing (Kok et al, 1993). The second condition concerns the knowledge representation (Russell & Norvig, 2009).The third is automated reasoning (Kok et al, 1993). The computer has to be able to reason based on the knowledge that has been put in its memory. Finally, the machine must be able to learn from its environment (Kok et al, 1993). Some scientists have argued that the Turing test presents some limits such as not rating the intelligence of the machine (French, 1990).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Spin Glass: An optimization problem, NP-complete problem (non-deterministic polynomial time complete) in three dimensions.

Artificial: Description of an object made by human beings and not a naturally.

Intelligence: The ability to acquire, learn and apply knowledge and skills.

Dendritic Algorithm: A classification algorithm based on the functioning of natural immune dendritic cells.

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