Considering Multiple Intelligence for Collaborative Cognitive Learning

Considering Multiple Intelligence for Collaborative Cognitive Learning

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5106-5.ch004

Abstract

In this chapter, there will be a presentation of information on the uniqueness of students based on their multiple intelligence. Gardner's approach to multiple intelligence provides a combination of different techniques and methods that are a useful tool to map learning to other classes. Evaluating multiple intelligence in a collaborative classroom can be useful for a constructivist approach to differentiated learning. Following are key areas that will be discussed in this chapter; multiple intelligence in a differentiated environment: Gardner's approach, working with multiple intelligence in a collaborative environment, evaluating cognitive learning in a differentiated environment and constructivist approach to differentiated learning. Multiple intelligence, learning styles and learner profiles help teachers develop an accurate development process for students. Students can take the evaluation and give to teachers in other classes. This grouping of different techniques and models is useful for understanding the impact of a multicultural environment.
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Multiple Intelligence in a Differentiated Environment: Gardner’s Approach

Multiple Intelligence (MI) is an excellent way to evaluate an individual’s learning potential. Individuals learn in a variety of ways and MI helps teachers evaluate students in many ways. MI can be used to evaluate different strengths in skills so students because students excel in different areas based on different intelligence. Also, MI theory can be correlated with different learning style models and personality profiles which may include Myers-Briggs and Dunn and Dunn.

Understanding the differentiated environment is necessary to develop multiple intelligence lessons and developing lesson plans. “Differentiation constitutes an innovating, constant reflective procedure of effective teaching and learning that cannot be met by readymade lesson plans” (Alavinia & Farhady, 2012, p. 74). The development of unique lesson plans that are based on learning styles, multiple intelligence and learner profiles can be a challenge but needs to be reflective of plans that are unique for each student’s ability. “It is, therefore, mostly the case that teachers who experience early successes with differentiation are more prone to adaptation in this respect” (Alavinia & Farhady, 2012, p. 77).

Teachers that work with a differentiated curriculum and develop lessons that are useful and reflective of different intelligence can manage a diverse group of students and this can be encouraging if students can positively reflect on objectives and goals for the topic assignment. When students are assessed, tested based on the lesson plan and show a positive result encourage teachers to continue with the differentiated lesson approach. Understanding the theory of multiple intelligence will be beneficial to the teacher and the student and can help students manage general and difficult topics.

“The theory of multiple intelligences identifies areas through which individuals see the world and express themselves” (Crim, Kennedy & Thornton, 2013, p. 72). This view of the world is different for all students. Analyzing student’s multiple intelligence helps teachers understand the differences in approaching learning styles.

The theory of multiple intelligences offers support for instructional approaches that incorporate a variety of connections for teaching and learning that validate the unique experiences, interests, and cultures of all students. (Crim et al., 2013, p. 72)

Since a connection is needed to manage students educational experience, the connection can also be useful to determine the students experience, interest and culture which can be beneficial for a multicultural classroom environment. “Tomlinson’s (1999) model of differentiation underscores the need to identify and create space for multiple intelligences to foster individual interest(s) and student learning profiles in the classroom” (Crim, et al., 2013, p. 72-73). By looking at a differentiated approach that includes the content, process and product, the teacher can map a student’s multiple intelligence, learning style and profile that will increase successful modeling of a student’s view of the material.

Multiple intelligence is useful in evaluating a student’s learning process as well as managing strengths and weaknesses for a student’s progress. Multiple intelligence is considered a functional concept that can be used to evaluate competency, capacity and talent among students. Diversification and differentiated instruction is a key for an instructor who wants to reach a large number of individuals in a class especially a multicultural class. As a teacher, it is necessary to develop curriculum and assignments that reach a large number of students with multiple intelligences. Silver and Strong (1997) noted that “multiple intelligence theory looks where style does not; it focuses on the content of learning and its relation to the disciplines. Such a focus, however, means that it does not deal with the individualized process of learning” (p. 24). Content can be managed and this aligns with differentiated curriculum development and the content can be related to groupings of students.

Teachers that understand the learning style can associate multiple intelligence and make a comparison that impacts the individualized approach to learning. “Multiple Intelligences celebrates the uniqueness and diversity of all students. Gardner suggests the need for a broader view of the human mind and of human learning than what currently exists” (McClellan & Conti, 2008, p. 16). Diversity in intelligence aligns with diversity in many different individuals. Multiple Intelligences holds that every student is smart not just in one or two ways but in many ways” (McClellan & Conti, 2008, p. 16). Different students have different intelligences and could have a combination of intelligences. “Many educators have begun to recognize that students have unique differences and would like to modify teaching methods to include Multiple Intelligences” (McClellan & Conti, 2008, p. 18). Teaching methods are useful for evaluating different individuals and can be a useful technique for managing different content for different intelligence and learning styles. The key to identifying the different intelligences is to understand the eight different domains of intelligence.

Pienaar, Nieman and Kamper (2011) noted that:

Howard Gardner (1983, 1993) distinguishes eight domains of ability in his theory of multiple intelligences. His theory suggests that individuals perceive the world in at least eight different and equally important ways. He considers that every person uses these intelligences in different and varying combinations to learn what is expected of them. (p. 268)

This multiple intelligence theory can be aligned with learning styles and learner profiles (See Table 1). Individuals look at things differently and their perception of understanding is different from person to person. Also, individuals may combine different intelligences in their learning process. A combination of multiple intelligence, learning style and MBTI can be evaluated together. The Myers Briggs indicators can be combined in a variety of combinations which helps to identify 16 different types for example someone who has IFJI may mean that an individual has an introversion, feeling, judging and intuition type.

Table 1.
Myers-Briggs Type indicator can be combined into 16 different combinations (The Myers & Briggs Foundation, 2017).
Multiple IntelligenceLearning StyleMyers-Briggs Type Indicator - MBTI
LinguisticVerbalJudging
Logical-MathematicalLogicalThinking
SpatialVisualPerceiving
Bodily-kinestheticPhysicalFeeling
MusicalAuralSensing
InterpersonalSocialExtraversion
IntrapersonalSolitaryIntroversion
NaturalistIntuition

Multiple intelligence types suggest that individuals have different perspectives of analyzing content differently and each component aligns with eight different types of intelligence. The eight intelligences are:

  • Linguistic

  • Logical-mathematical

  • Spatial

  • Bodily-kinesthetic

  • Musical

  • Interpersonal

  • Intrapersonal

  • Naturalist

Each of the intelligences is based on different ways that individuals learn and conceptualize information. Teachers have the responsibility of preparing lessons and curriculum in a way to meet the different intelligences which in turn provides learners with a diversified approach to their learning process. One of the types of multiple intelligence is linguistic.

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