Interaction as a Method of Educating Constructivism: The Gaming-Based Learning Concept as a Tool of Interactivity

Interaction as a Method of Educating Constructivism: The Gaming-Based Learning Concept as a Tool of Interactivity

Stylianos Eyaggelos Gouloudis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0253-2.ch009

Abstract

Constructivism allows the student to build knowledge and learning on his own. Through the discovery, experimentation, and tests, the student tries to consolidate the learning objects. Τhis chapter approaches constructivism through the use of methods used by information technology. An advantage of IT tools is the interaction that turns the teaching into experiential and experimental where the student tries to evaluate and improve his abilities. Methods such as robotics, interactive television, and the use of the internet provide forms of interactive learning based on the methodology of game-based learning, which contribute to constructivism. In this chapter, once the construction and importance in education and especially in IT is presented, the importance of game-based learning and video games is presented. The authors show the role of robotics and the internet in relation to the interaction they offer, and also the role of interactive television in the educational process from the point of view of constructivism.
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Constructivism And Education

An important place in learning theories is constructivism. According to this theory, the apprentice builds knowledge based on past experiences by completing them with new ones.

The founder of this scheme is Piaget, who collaborated with Papert, resulting in the transformation of constructivism into the so-called constructive upheaval, Constactionism. Papert is the one who created Logo, the familiar turtle, believing that PC use is necessary in the learning process, enabling students to further develop their skills. Papert, on the other hand, is associated with the phrase “the one really competitive skill is the skill to be able to learn”. Learning becomes more effective when learners are activated, building tangible objects in their real world, which make sense to them (Dimitriadis, 2015).

With Logo, the student is the one who controls the machine and schedules it. There is, thus, an interaction since the instrument reacts to the student's commands. This is achieved in an environment, in a microcosm as reported by Papert (1980). A microcosm composes a conceptual space with the ability to create new functions from the combination of existing ones (Vergnaud, 1983).

On the other hand, Piaget argues that the cognitive development of a child is different from his age. The child builds his knowledge and meaning from the interaction he receives when discovering new knowledge, always in combination with his previous experiences (Kapsalis, 2015). According to Piaget, the cognitive development of the child is distinguished in four phases:

  • 1.

    Phase of sensory kinetic functions (0-2 years)

  • 2.

    Phase of symbolic functions (2-7 years)

  • 3.

    Phase of specific cognitive functions (7-11 years)

  • 4.

    Phase of abstract cognitive functions (11-15 years)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Learning Objects: Any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning. Examples of such instruction include computer-based training systems, Interactive learning environments, intelligent computer-aided instruction systems, distance learning systems, and collaborative learning environments. Examples of Learning Objects include multimedia content, instructional content, learning objectives, instructional software and software tools, and persons, organizations, or events referenced during technology-supported learning. As the vast social network resources bring to surface billions of such ontologies, this chapter narrows this scope to the digital resources, irrelevant of their size, which can be reused to support learning. Usually they are delivered across the Web or similar networks on demand. Examples of smaller reusable digital resources include digital images or photos, live data feeds (like stock tickers), live or pre-recorded video or audio snippets, small bits of text, animations, and smaller web-delivered applications, like a Java calculator. Examples of larger reusable digital resources include entire web pages that combine text, images and other media or applications to deliver complete experiences, such as a complete instructional event.

Rich Content: Videos along with texts, sounds, and animations have emerged as a dominant media for educational purposes in many Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms. Rich content relies on high quality visual components offered via online learning platforms. As organizations convert more and more text, photos, graphics, films and other media into digital formats, locating and retrieving specific files has become increasingly difficult. However, visual learners and who understand better by watching the short format engaging videos rather than by just reading or listening to course materials, indicate the road ahead, that of the success/popularity of online learning videos.

Stem Education: Literally the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics interdisciplinary and applied curriculum in education. Virtually, grouped together in primary and secondary education systematic practical learning activity on the study of structure and behavior for both the physical and the digital worlds.

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