Electronic Government

Electronic Government

Aizhan Baimukhamedova, Malik Baimukhamedov
Copyright: © 2023 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5727-6.ch010
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Е-government is based on electronic document management systems, state management automation systems, and other information and communication systems. A description of four е-government models—Continental European model, Anglo-American model, Asian model, and Russian model—are reviewed. The basis for the creation of the е-government portal is the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated November 10, 2004, Nº 1471 “On state program of formation of Е-government in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2007.” Е-government supports the following goals: creating new forms of interaction between government agencies, optimizing the provision of government services to the public and businesses, supporting and expansion of citizens' self-service capabilities, increasing technological awareness and skills of citizens, and increasing the degree of participation of all voters in the processes of governance and management of the country.
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Concept and Description

Е-Government is a government that interacts with public authorities, citizens, organizations in an electronic format with minimal personal (physical) interaction. Е-Government is based on electronic document management system, state management automation systems and other information and communication systems (Elektronnoye pravitel'stvo, 2017).

Е-government Models

  • By 2017, 4 Е-government models are known and applied in the world:

    • Continental European model

    • Anglo-American model

    • Asian model

    • Russian model

Continental European Model. This model is characterized by the presence of supranational institutions, whose recommendations must be implemented by all EU countries; a high degree of integration, which is manifested in a single currency, a single information space, in the preparation of a new single Constitution, etc.; legislation regulating information relations in the European information space. The application of technologies in this model is primarily focused on the needs of citizen users.

Anglo-American Model. The model is widely used in the US, Canada and the UK. The United States has created information superhighways that provide citizens with information about government. All services are open, transparent, and the government has a great responsibility to the population. In the UK program called “Electronic citizens, e-business, e-government.

The Strategic Concept of Serving Society in the” Information Age” focuses on solving the following problems: expanding the scope of services provided, the most efficient use of social information, creating conditions for full coverage. The main goal for the UK is to free civil servants from performing routine work.

Asian Model. This model has a specific type of control. The main emphasis is placed on meeting the information needs of the population and the introduction of information technologies in the system of culture and education. The creation of a single information space throughout the country not only strengthens the position of the state, but also puts into practice the basic principle of democracy: the people are the source and bearer of power.

Russian model. The main goals of the program are to increase the efficiency of the functioning of the economy, state and local government, create conditions for free access to information and receive the necessary services. In total, the program provides for development in nine areas, the main of which are ensuring openness in the activities of bodies and improving the activities of state authorities and local self-government.

The disadvantages of e-government models, especially at the early stages of its construction, include an overly “mechanical” way of transferring traditional state and municipal services to electronic form. The transition to an electronic form of public services usually does not include the identification of inefficient and outdated regulatory documents, the implementation of measures to cancel them, correct them and develop new laws, orders and regulations - as this requires the organization of a complex process of coordinating expert work and rule-making processes, and time for this job. E-government working groups are mainly funded from the budget, they are dominated by civil servants, and the search for a compromise with other participants in the ecosystem is not expected, or is difficult. Such a technocratic approach to the automation of public services, while undoubtedly increasing the convenience of their use by citizens and organizations, as a result, does not significantly improve the business climate and does not change the content of interaction between subjects (Malitikov Е. M., 2009).

In the process of providing a number of public services, due to the impossibility of regulatory cancellation of the traditional “paper” workflow, there is a duplication of traditional and paper workflow, which leads to an increase in budget costs for supporting both processes and raises questions from experts about the economic efficiency and state feasibility of such an approach to automating them.

The idea to create an electronic government in Kazakhstan was initiated by the Head of State, Nursultan Nazarbayev.

In 2004, the Program for the Formation of the Electronic Government for 2005-2007 was approved (Ukaz Prezidenta, 2004). The implementation of the program involved the phased solution of the following tasks:

  • 1.

    Information stage - publication and dissemination of information.

  • 2.

    Interactive stage - the provision of services through direct and reverse interaction between a government agency and a citizen.

  • 3.

    Transactional stage - interaction through the implementation of financial and legal transactions through the government portal.

  • 4.

    Information society.

The e-government portal www.egov.kz is being developed by the national information technology operator of the Republic of Kazakhstan, JSC” National Information Technologies”, and subsidiary National Info communication Holding” Zerde”.

Today, three access points were created on the principle of “one-stop” window for the public and businesses in Kazakhstan in order to obtain government services. Namely saying, it is the Е -government portal, public service and contact center. Formed for the current moment the Е-government infrastructure allows Kazakhstanis to receive through Е -government portal more than 570 services.

The basis for the creation of Е-government portal is the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated November 10, 2004 Nº 1471 “On state program of formation of Е-government in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005-2007”.

Joint Stock Company “National Information Technologies” is directly involved in managing and supporting the portal of ” Е -government”. E-government portal has been in operation since 2006.

The creation of Е -government was necessary to make the work of government agencies more efficient, open, and accessible to citizens. Previously, each government agency “lived its own life” and had little contact with the rest, and citizens had to bypass many instances to collect all sorts of certificates, confirmations and other papers. All of this turned the process of obtaining one service into endless walking through institutions. Now that's over, thanks to Е -government projects.

E-government is a single mechanism of interaction between the state and citizens, as well as state bodies with each other, ensuring their consistency through information technology. It is this mechanism that has made it possible to reduce queues at state bodies and to simplify and speed up the process of obtaining certificates, certificates, permits and much more. In other words, Е -government is when only IIN is needed to obtain a license (and all other data is obtained through automatic requests), when you can pay for utilities and fines online, when you can get a certificate from the State Corporation “Government for Citizens” in order to obtain it, when you can register a business or to get a certificate on the portal of “Е-government” in some 10-15 minutes, when you can find out the turn of the child in kindergarten at any time of the day or night.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Virtual Reality: Is a world (objects and subjects) created by technical means, transmitted to a person through his sensations: sight, hearing, smell, touch, etc. Virtual reality imitates both impact and responses to exposure.

Level of Digitalization: Is calculated as the ratio of the installed capacity of electronic exchanges to the total installed capacity of telephone exchanges.

Processing Large Amounts of Data: Is a set of approaches, tools, and methods for automatic processing of structured and unstructured information coming from a large number of different, including scattered or loosely coupled, information sources, in volumes that cannot be processed manually in a reasonable time.

Electronic Commerce: Is a segment of the economy that includes the purchase and sale of goods, works, services, rights to use electronic content using electronic means of communication, primarily the internet.

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies: Technological processes (including machines, apparatus, equipment and devices) based on microelectronics or computer-controlled and used in the design, manufacture, or processing of products.

Ecosystem: Is an economic community that consists of a collection of interconnected organizations and individuals. The economic community produces goods and services of value to the consumer, which are also part of the ecosystem.

Data: Presentation of information in a form suitable for automatic processing.

Level of Innovative Activity of Organizations: Is usually defined as the ratio of the number of organizations that carried out technological, organizational, or marketing innovations to the total number of organizations surveyed for a certain period in a country, industry, region, etc.

Electronic Document Management (EDM): Is a document management system in which the entire array of created, transmitted, and stored documents is supported using information and communication technologies on computers united in a network structure, providing for the possibility of forming and maintaining a distributed database.

Cloud Computing: Is an information technology model of providing ubiquitous and convenient access using the Internet to a common set of configurable computing resources (cloud), storage devices, applications and services that can be quickly provided and released from the load with minimal operating costs or virtually no participation of the provider.

Website: Is a place on the Internet, which is determined by the address, has an owner and consists of web pages. In statistical observation, an organization is considered to have a website if it has at least one page of its own on the Internet, on which information is published and regularly (at least once every six months) updated.

New Production Technologies: Include cyber-physical systems, sensor technologies, 3D printing, computer engineering, robotics, qualitatively different production resources (nanotechnology and new materials), etc. Their widespread introduction will optimize production processes, increase the efficiency of resource use, reduce downtime equipment and the cost of its maintenance.

Robotization: Is the use of intelligent robotic systems, the functional features of which are in a sufficiently flexible response to changes in the working area.

Big Data: Technologies for collecting, processing, and storing significant arrays of heterogeneous information; are the basis for the development of machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms, solving analytical problems and optimizing business processes.

Blockchain: Is a technology that combines a number of mathematical, cryptographic, and economic principles that support the existence of a ledger distributed among several participants.

Data Transmission Channels: Are devices and means through which data (information) is transmitted at a distance.

Industrial Internet: The concept of building information and communication infrastructures based on connecting industrial devices, equipment, sensors, sensors, process control systems to the information and telecommunication network of the internet.

Virtual Reality Technology: Is a technology of non-contact information interaction that realizes the illusion of direct presence in real time in a stereoscopically presented “virtual world” using complex multimedia operating environments.

Platform: Broadly defined as a communication and transactional environment, the participants of which benefit from interacting with each other.

Artificial Intelligence: Is a complex of technological solutions that allows you to simulate human cognitive functions (including self-learning and search for solutions without a predetermined algorithm) and to obtain, when performing specific tasks, results comparable, at least, to the results of human intellectual activity.

Sensorics: Technologies that allow interaction with a computer by touching its parts (contact interfaces) or by moving near the computer without touching it (contactless interfaces), and not by changing the position of its mechanical parts (keys, levers, etc.).

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT): Are technologies that use microelectronic means for collecting, storing, processing, searching, transmitting, and presenting data, texts, images, and sound.

Artificial Intelligence Technologies: Technologies based on the use of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and synthesis, intelligent decision support and promising artificial intelligence methods.

Global Cybersecurity Index: Characterizes the level of cybersecurity in the country, organizational measures in the field of cybersecurity, the presence of state educational and scientific institutions, partnerships, cooperation mechanisms and information exchange systems that contribute to building capacity in the field of information security.

Internet of Things: Is a concept of a computer network connecting things (physical objects) equipped with built-in information technologies for interacting with each other or with the external environment without human intervention.

Global Competitiveness Index: Characterizes the level of competitiveness of countries. Calculated by the World Economic Forum based on 12 parameters.

Neurotechnology: Are technologies that provide monitoring of the activity of the brain of a person or other vertebrates and (or) control over it.

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