A Hybrid Network Emergency Communication Model

A Hybrid Network Emergency Communication Model

Abdussalam Nuri Baryun (Department of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK), Khalid Al Begain (Department of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK) and David Villa (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain)
Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/jhcr.2013040102
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To communicate within disaster scenarios, different devices/systems need to cooperate with specific protocols. The key communication protocol needs to provide interoperability among these systems and provide the solution for emergency services. The paper studies the hybrid network disaster recovery (HNDR) systems and classifies its communication scenarios and requirements. The authors propose a new networking protocol for the hybrid network, with ability to forward sessions and messages through different transport protocols, and copes with node mobility and node failure. The paper considers heterogeneous network disaster recovery scenario and proposes a cost effective and easy to deploy hybrid network emergency communication protocol (HNEC). This internetwork protocol is a specific model of the inter-domain messaging (IDM) protocol for emergency communications. The routing protocol procedure is similar to the reactive AODV procedure but is different in maintaining routes from unpredicted link breaks or node failure. A detailed simulation model with the designed network layer model is used to investigate network delivery rate and end-to-end delay performance. The performance results are analyzed using varying node load, mobility speed, and network size.
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The Hybrid Network Disaster Recovery (Hndr)


Potentially, in disaster situation a fast deployment network is recommended and the proposed solution can be categorized in three ad hoc networks: a) using MANET only with coverage depends on network size and antenna gain, b) using Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) with mobile sinks to the MANET. This combination adds to MANET sensing and reacting services capabilities. Sensors measure and monitor a physic magnitude (e.g. temperature, poison, smokes, nuclear damages, etc.), but actuators change a state of a process or object which may drive a physical magnitude. c) adding High Altitude Platform (HAP) and satellite systems, to improve coverage to larger areas and may be used to support emergency call systems (e.g. HAP system may be alternative to cellular emergency system). The additional ad hoc nodes (such as HAP or satellite systems) can be utilized for larger disaster impacts. HAP system provides coverage of about 300km in diameter. Satellite communication system requires more complexity and larger antenna for communication than in HAP, therefore, HAP systems are more flexible and advanced (range distance is less than 20 km) and that its transceivers can be smaller. In some situations dangerous areas cannot be accessed safely, it is recommended to examine the suspicious area. Small sensor devices may be distributed within those areas to gather information and send response when needed. Therefore the internetworking between MANET and WSAN is essential. This paper develops a hybrid protocol for emergency networks of sensors, actuators, smart phones and PDAs. The protocol involves routing and internetworking functions for MANET and WSAN within a disaster scenario. The network user communicates through the network nodes by sharing their resources. Most of the HNDR nodes are IDM routers and are able to interconnect different network technologies.

The network disaster recovery (NDR) was defined by Chen, Macwan, and Rupe (2011) as recovering communication after a disaster and supporting communications during that recovery until normal situations. Rapidly practical exercises for NDR were established in many cities to gain experience and get prepared for unpredicted situations (Morrison, 2011). The post-disaster planning and practices result in best practice procedures and coordination for communication teams and systems.

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