A Novel Method for High Capacity Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Difference Expansion

A Novel Method for High Capacity Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Difference Expansion

Subhadip Mukherjee, Biswapati Jana
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/IJNCR.2019100102
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Data hiding techniques are very significant in the research area of information security. In this article, the authors propose a new reversible data hiding (RDH) scheme using difference expansion. At first, the original image is partitioned into 3 × 3 pixel blocks, then marked Type-one and Type-two pixels based on their coordinate values. After that, the authors find correlated pixels by computing correlation coefficients and the median of Type-one pixels. Next, secret data bits are embedded within Type-two pixels based on correlated pixels and Type-one pixels based on the stego Type-two pixels. The data extraction process successfully extracts secret data as well as recovers the cover image. The authors observed the effects of the proposed method by performing experiments on some standard cover images and found significantly better result in terms of data hiding capacity compared with existing data hiding schemes.
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A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to model and characterized the RDH with the aim of creating a consistent mathematical framework to analyze such techniques effectively. In 1997, J. M. Barton proposed the first RDH scheme. There are some popular techniques like Integer Transformation, Difference Expansion, Histogram Shifting, Interpolation technique etc. has been used in RDH over past few years (Govind & Wilscy, 2015; Tian, 2003; Zhang et al., 2014; Rathika & Kumaresan, 2016; Zhang, 2011). Integer Transformation techniques are used to embed 1-bit secret data into a one-pixel pair in a way that the sum of the pixel pair remains unchanged. Based on the invariability of some values and the equality between the parties of sum values and difference values, the extraction of secret data bits and recovery of pixel pairs can be easily achieved (Peng et al., 2012). The difference expansion is the high-quality reversible method for hidden data communication. Here the predicted image pixel error is used instead of the pixel-pair difference for difference expansion (DE) embedding (Govind et al., 2015; Tian, 2003).

A typical RDH scheme is achieved through Histogram Shifting (HS), which is widely investigated due to its high quality of stego-image. An evolutionary optimization algorithm is employed to search the nearly optimal zero and peak bins. For a given data payload, the proper number of zero and peak bin pairs can be adaptively determined (Lu et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2017).

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