Biomechanical Effects of Different Footwear on Steady State walking

Biomechanical Effects of Different Footwear on Steady State walking

Saad Jawaid Khan (Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Abu Zeeshan Bari (NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan), Soobia Saad Khan (Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) and Muhammad Tahir Khan (School of Public Health, Dow University of Health Science, Karachi, Pakistan)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/IJBCE.2016010102


The objective of this work is to evaluate the biomechanical effects of footwear on steady state walking of a user. An initial subjective preference of the footwear was identified which was validated biomechanically in relation to the kinetic parameters of gait. The subject underwent 3D gait analysis (using VICON Motion Capture System, UK) under four conditions: barefoot, with formal shoes, with casual shoes and with sandals. ANOVA and Paired t-test of Temporal Spatial Parameters (TSP), joint powers and joint moments (a = 0.05), for the four conditions in sagittal plane showed that there were significant differences found in TSP's, joint moments and work done, but not in joint powers. The behaviour of formal shoes was significantly different in the frontal and transverse plane moments and had the most profound effect on the joints. Although several hypotheses on the implications of footwear on the gait parameters are proposed, these require further investigation, supplemented with electromyography (EMG) and metabolic energy measurements for a larger population.
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List Of Abbreviations

  • ANOVA: Analysis of Variance

  • EMG: Electromyography

  • GRF: Ground reaction force

  • ISw: Initial Swing

  • LR: Loading Response

  • MS: Mid-Swing

  • MSw: Mid-Swing

  • PSw: Pre-Swing

  • TSP: Temporary Spatial Parameeters

  • TSw: Terminal Swing




The subject volunteered for this study was a 34-year-old healthy male having no known physical or neurological impairment. A written consent was also taken from the subject. Only one subject was considered in order to reduce inter-subject variability. Table 1 presents anthropometric data of the subject.

Table 1.
Anthropometric data
ParameterMean ValueParameterMean Value
Height (cm)170Left knee width (cm)10.7
Weight (kg)67.5Right ankle width (cm)6.8
Right leg length (cm)87Left ankle width (cm)6.9
Left leg length (cm)86.5Inter-ASIS distance (cm)23.3
Right knee width (cm)10.6Age34

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