Design of Sensor Nodes based on Principles of LoRaPhy and LoRaWAN

Design of Sensor Nodes based on Principles of LoRaPhy and LoRaWAN

Maruti Muthu (Thakur College of Engineering and Technology, Mumbai, India), Sanket Sunil Gore (Thakur College of Engineering and Technology, Mumbai, India) and Sarvesh Sandesh Sawant (Thakur College of Engineering and Technology, Mumbai, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJECME.2020010102
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The idea of research is based on long distance low power wireless communication. The primary objective is to prolong the battery life of the communication device connected to the sensors. This is done by providing single gateway to multiple nodes. Conventionally in IoT (Internet of Things) applications, the sensors are interfaced with 3G/4G modules to push the data to the server directly. Hence, individual devices require more power to send data to the server. This would deteriorate the battery backup of the system and would increase the power dissipation. By using LORA node-gateway network, a group of sensors send data to a single gateway which requires less power compared to the conventional methods. This article provides insight about the LoRa sensor node design and enclosure setup. Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) or Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation technique is used to encode the data that is to be sent to the server under this scheme. The data acquired at the gateway is formatted and forwarded to the server.
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Currently there are a number of wireless communication technologies that can be used to connect a device to the internet. Every application is based on factors such as range, data rate, cost, power consumption, volume and form factor that have to be considered. This paper provides an insight to the LoRaWAN and compares its advantages to other protocols. It also discusses how LoRa can be efficiently implemented for IoT applications.

Every technology has both merits and demerits. For example, Wi-Fi can transmit large amount of data at high speed, but it has a limited range of operation. A cellular network provides high speed and long range, but its power consumption is high. IoT applications such as remote data acquisition, urban lighting control, weather monitoring, and agriculture, each have a different set of priorities. The amount of data being estimated or controlled in these applications, for example, climate conditions, soil dampness levels, or streetlights, all change gradually over an expanded time-frame. What's more, the sensor hubs are frequently miles separated and are battery operated, so the ideal remote convention must have the capacity to send information bundles effectively over long separations with least power utilisation. The LoRa convention was intended for precisely these necessities. LoRa is focused on Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) applications.

LoRa is used for long range and low power communication between the node and the server. This is done by isolating the node and server by introducing a gateway. The packet sent by the node to the gateway is encrypted and uplinked such that it would consume just a fraction of the power as compared to direct uplink to the server. Since LoRa is relatively new technology the main objective of the research would be to develop a node (end device) which operates on an independent power source to collect data points. This method of acquiring the data has proved to be power efficient.

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