Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security

Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security

Christian Czosseck (Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Estonia), Rain Ottis (Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Estonia) and Anna-Maria Talihärm (Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Estonia)
Copyright: © 2011 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/ijcwt.2011010103
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Abstract

At the time of the state-wide cyber attacks in 2007, Estonia was one of the most developed nations in Europe regarding the ubiquitous use of information and communication technology (ICT) in all aspects of society. Relaying on the Internet for conducting a range of business transactions is common practice. But naturally, the more a society depends on ICT, the more it becomes vulnerable to cyber attacks. Unlike other research on the Estonian incident, this paper does not focus on the analysis of the events themselves. Instead, the authors examine Estonia’s cyber security policy and subsequent changes made in response to the cyber attacks. As such, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the strategic, legal, and organisational changes based on lessons learned by Estonia after the 2007 cyber attacks. The analysis is based on a review of national security governing strategies, changes in the Estonia’s legal framework, and organisations with direct impact on cyber security. The paper discusses six important lessons learned and manifested in actual changes: each followed by a set of cyber security policy recommendations appealing to national security analysts as well as nation states developing their own cyber security strategy.
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2 Development Of National Strategies

The benefits as well as threats of the use of Internet-related applications to information societies are identified by a number of Estonian high level policies and strategies.

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