From Text to Semantic Geodata Enrichment

From Text to Semantic Geodata Enrichment

Khaoula Mahmoudi (Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Information Systems for Spatial Reference, Tunis, Tunisia) and Sami Faiz (Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Information Systems for Spatial Reference, Tunis, Tunisia)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/ijats.2014010102
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Geographically referenced information are captured, managed, analyzed and displayed by the geographic information system (GIS). This information will help to better understand and analyze a host of human activities in an attempt to reach a more sustainable future. Moreover, these information are sometimes hardly available due to the cost entailed by the acquisition process and the maintenance. Hence, efforts are devoted to bring the interesting information with less cost. In this context, the authors propose an approach dedicated to the enrichment of the semantic aspect of geographic database (GDB). The approach emerges from the agents' interaction in conformity with the multi-agents framework. It deals with an Interface agent, Task agents and Geographic ones. These agents are to process a corpus of documents related to the geographic entity at hand. This processing consists of extracting the essence of information from the managed corpus to enrich the GDB. These agents follow a pipelined approach consisting of the following stages: text fragmentation, thematic annotation, delegation and text filtering. Besides these basic stages, a refinement is to be performed in case of user unsatisfaction and this by exploring the spatial relationships.
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In the context of GIS, the enrichment process falls into two basic classes: the semantic enrichment and the spatial one.

For the spatial enrichment it may be operated in the context of the generalization process (Plazanet, 1996). The information to complement the GDB spatial aspect is explored to supply procedural and geometrical knowledge. The latter are to guide the choice of the adequate generalization solution.

Regarding the semantic enrichment, it operates on the semantic data (also referred to as aspatial, descriptive or thematic) stored in the GDB. A set of works may be classified under this data enrichment category.

MetaCarta (2005) may be seen as a bridge between the GIS systems and a set of documents. This is materialized by applying the Geographic Text Search (GTS). GTS allows to link textual documents to geographic entities localized in digital maps to add supplementary data to GDB. GTS is offered as an extension to the GIS ArcGIS.

The GeoNode (Geographic News On Demand Environment) (Hyland et al., 1999) adopts the MITRE’s Alembic system (Day et al., 1997) to carry out the enrichment. Alembic system allows extracting the named entities highlighted in each story. It consists of exploring as input news stories to depict events happening at particular time and place. The GIS ArcView supports GeoNode.

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