IoT Big Data Security, Privacy and Challenges Related to Smart Grid

IoT Big Data Security, Privacy and Challenges Related to Smart Grid

Kimmi Kumari (M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, India) and M. Mrunalini (M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJWNBT.2019070101

Abstract

The highly interconnected network of heterogeneous devices which enables all kinds of communications to take place in an efficient manner is referred to as “IOT.” In the current situation, the data are increasing day by day in size as well as in terms of complexities. These are the big data which are in huge demand in the industrial sectors. Various IT sectors are adopting big data present on IOT for the growth of their companies and fulfilling their requirements. But organizations are facing a lot of security issues and challenges while protecting their confidential data. IOT type systems require security while communications which is required currently by configuration levels of security algorithms, but these algorithms give more priority to functionalities of the applications over security. Smart grids have become one of the major subjects of discussions when the demands for IOT devices increases. The requirements arise related to the generation and transmission of electricity, consumption of electricity being monitored, etc. The system which is responsible to collect heterogeneous data are a complicated structure and some of its major subsystems which they require for smooth communications include log servers, smart meters, appliances which are intelligent, different sensors chosen based on their requirements, actuators with proper and efficient infrastructure. Security measures like collection, storage, manipulations and a massive amount of data retention are required as the system is highly diverse in its architecture and even the heterogeneous IOT devices are interacting with each other. In this article, security challenges and concerns of IOT big data associated with smart grid are discussed along with the new security enhancements for identification and authentications of things in IOT big data environments.
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Introduction

The critical services like water supply, generation of electricity, occurrence of communications etc. along with modern infrastructure is a great requirement of the society in this 21st era which should be provided to them efficiently and without any difficulties. Initially the system which provides the critical services as mentioned above faced a lot of issues related to security when an attempt to provide them in isolation was made. As and when, new techniques such as smart technology came into picture, slowly and slowly, it is observed that these systems and IOT are combined through smart and intelligent systems like smart grids, transportation system which is modernized, networks of sensors and habitats which is followed intelligently. This combination of the systems facing security issues with IOT took place because the client’s requirements were changing drastically and these requirements can be completed in a short duration of time through internet and system which is invented intelligently and smartly. This will also make the upgradation work easier. The systems which are implemented smartly gives you a lot of benefits in terms of cost because it avoids the cost of diagnosis and technicians in remote places as highlighted by Dr. Pankaj Pathak et al. (2017), Baig et al. (2017) and Leloglu et al. (2017). The security issues being faced by various sectors while deploying smart systems is one of the reasons why still some sectors have not entertained it. The sectors which do not want to be involved in smart system deployment does not want to come across various challenging security issues even though they want to obtain the advantage of IOT. There are various research scholars working on the area of handling the security challenges while deploying of the smart systems.

The large IOT network used by a typical infrastructure which is actually meant for large ICT communication are referred to as smart grid. The smart grid contains the basic infrastructure which is developed by huge number of devices supported with equipment that enables communications as briefly mentioned by Asplund et al. (2016) and Rastogi et al. (2016). The primary focus of this paper is to handle security challenges which is faced by systems of smart grid in the process of deployment. If the motive is to make the deployment of smart grid successful, then measures against security threats needs to be implemented. This paper also focus on the basic workflow of smart grid along with proposing protection and control mechanism.

In order to implement smart grid system, it is very important that its equipment such as smart meters and sensors as discussed by Stojmenovic et al. (2016) are used for deployment considering a large scale. Balancing of the load is the reason behind the usage of smart meters and various other equipment which are heterogeneous in nature and contains data fetched from different source too as discussed by Chren et al. (2016), Nguyen et al. (2015), Raghav Toshniwal et al. (2015) and Bekara et al. (2014). The data which is being produced by system of smart grid are considered as enormous.

In Figure 1, the usage of smart grid system is depicted which includes generation of power energy, monitoring of power, transmission of electricity, metering done smartly etc. The Figure also shows that the data produced in enormous by smart grid system should be provided to users which are authorized, the future research scholars and the staff involves in power grid.

Figure 1.

Illustration of IOT Big Data in Smart Grid

IJWNBT.2019070101.f01

Security and privacy are the major concern which should be taken care when obtaining consumption of energy data from various houses automatically as described by Noll et al. (2014) and Min Chen et al. (2014). Mechanism are proposed for protection by Halder et al. (2014) such as firewall protections where deep packet or firewall inspection capability is required by the device in order to control the traffic towards it. Smart Grid follows its own set of protocols which is required by the devices to interact with each other. In order to determine the malicious payloads in non-IT protocols, it is important to have the usage of deep packet specific data filtering.

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