A New Parallel Data Cube Construction Scheme

A New Parallel Data Cube Construction Scheme

Dong Jin (Qingdao University, China) and Tatsuo Tsuji (University of Fukui, Japan)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/jghpc.2012040103
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The pre-computation of data cubes is critical for improving the response time of OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) systems. To meet the need for improved performance created by growing data sizes, parallel solutions for data cube construction are becoming increasingly important. This paper presents a new parallel data cube construction scheme based on an extendible multidimensional array, which is dynamically extendible along any dimension without relocating any existing data. The authors have implemented and evaluated their parallel data cube construction methods on shared-memory multiprocessors. Given the performance limit, the methods achieve close to linear speedup with load balance. The authors’ experiments also indicate that their parallel methods can be more scalable on higher dimensional data cube construction.
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1. Introduction

The pre-computation of the various views (group-bys) of a data cube, i.e., the forming of aggregates for every combination of GROUP-BY attributes, is critical for improving the response time of OLAP queries in decision support systems (Gray, Bosworth, Layman, & Pirahesh, 1996). When the number of dimension attributes is n, the data cube computes 2n group-bys, each of which is called a cuboid. A lattice can be used to express dependencies among cuboids (Harinarayan, Rajaraman, & Ullman, 1996). Figure 1 shows a lattice for a 4-dimensional data cube with dimension a, b, c and d. An edge between two cuboids indicates that the target cuboid can be computed from the source cuboid by aggregation along one dimension. We call the cuboid abcd at the bottom of the lattice base cuboid. The others are called dependent cuboids because they can be computed directly or indirectly from the base cuboid.

Figure 1.

A 4-dimensional data cube lattice


As the number of dimensions increases, data cube computation cost grows exponentially. Parallel solutions on multiprocessor systems are becoming very popular for fast data cube computation (Chen, Dehne, Eavis, & Rau-Chaplin, 2004; Dehne, Eavis, Hambrusch, & Rau-Chaplin, 2002; Dehne, Eavis, & Rau-Chaplin, 2006; Goil & Choudhary, 1997, 2001; Jin, Yang, Vaidyanathan, & Agrawal, 2005; Lu, Huang, & Li, 1997; Lu, Yu, Feng, & Li, 2003; Muto & Kitsuregawa, 1999; Ng, Wagner, & Yin, 2001; Yang, Jin, & Agrawal, 2003). They are all based on two kinds of cluster architecture: shared-storage or shared-nothing architecture depending on the nature of disks access. In this paper, we choose to implement on shared-memory multiprocessors. The processors can use shared memory to exchange data between each other to avoid the large data communication cost which may be caused by parallel data cube computation on shared-nothing multiprocessors systems.

In previous works on parallel systems (Chen et al., 2004; Dehne et al., 2002, 2006; Goil et al., 1997, 2001; Jin et al., 2005; Lu et al., 1997, 2003; Muto et al., 1999; Ng et al., 2001; Yang et al., 2003), data management is one challenge because they all organize a data cube on cuboid level as far as we know. Data management becomes very complex for high dimensional data cubes because a full data cube is usually stored into O(2n) files corresponding to the 2n cuboids. All of the parallel methods are also challenged by load imbalance which is caused by different cuboid sizes or data skew (Chen et al., 2004; Muto et al., 1999). Due to dependency among cuboids, there must be parallel performance limit in the previous works (Chen et al., 2004; Dehne et al., 2002, 2006; Goil et al., 1997, 2001; Jin et al., 2005; Lu et al., 1997, 2003; Muto et al., 1999; Ng et al., 2001; Yang et al., 2003). However, the performance limit was not explicitly discussed in those papers.

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