Operation of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System With LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies

Operation of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System With LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies

Estifanos Tilahun Mihret (Mettu University, Ethiopia) and Kebebew Ababu Yitayih (Jimma University, Ethiopia)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/IJSVST.2021010103
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This work proposed an integrated novel architecture of UAV System, LTE/4G, and WAVE technologies with its forwarding schemes in highway scenario to enhance the VANET communications and achieve the requirements of its basic applications, particularly safety and traffic. Algorithms for UAV sensing, tagging (based on the proposed safety and traffic info model), and broadcasting operations, and forwarding of safety or traffic info to respective infrastructures, and then smart ground vehicles are designed, particularly to minimize intermittent connectivity and bandwidth usage as well as to satisfy the requirements of VANET applications. The authors have evaluated the performance of the integrated novel architecture with its forwarding schemes/algorithms through integrated and simulated VANETs and wireless access technologies (LTE/4G and UAV system) environment.
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1. Introduction

Driven by high demand of road safety and navigation accuracy, vehicle communications are becoming increasingly popular nowadays. After years of development of wireless communication and mobile ad hoc network, the concept of VANET (Vehicular Ad Hoc Network) has come forward and built foundation for unlimited forms of vehicle-to-vehicle applications. New standards for vehicular communication such as DSRC (Dedicated Short-Range Communications (Qing et al., 2004)) and more recent IEEE 802.11p (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment, WAVE (Daniel & Luca, 2008)) are emerging, which enhances the effectiveness and feasibility of vehicular communications.

With the innovation and rapid development in personal digital gadgets, especially smart phones and wearable devices, people have naturally increased their demand in the interconnectivity of things around them. Vehicles are now an indispensable part in our life. By embedding new technology, manufacturers are broadening our view of vehicles from a source of transportation to an integrated center of information and recreation. People have been exploring new possibilities in vehicular applications such as the vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocol for cooperative collision warning proposed in (Xue et al., 2004) and the smart parking scheme for large parking lots based on VANET proposed in (Rongxing et al., 2009). However, most of these VANET applications need extra infrastructure, which makes them hard to deploy.

Vehicular communication is usually developed as a part of ITS and governing by the ISO/ETSI reference communications stack. Generally, the communication mode of VANET classified V2V and V2I respectively (Issac & Latiff, 2014). V2V has uses the OBU to communicate with one another, which enables distributed pattern of communication among vehicles with decentralized coordination. While V2I has vehicles communicate to RSU so as to enhance communication range by sending and receiving information from a vehicle to another vehicle. However, these two types of VANET communications have their own constraints within various scenarios. For instance, V2V communication in highway scenario, to broadcast time-critical information like traffic accident warnings, it has completely depended on the sparseness and swiftness of vehicles. Thus, it will be difficult to achieve the goal of safety applications due to intermittent connectivity. Additionally, each vehicle periodically broadcasts a beacon or hello message to each other that used to exchange their current states and surrounding info. Due to this circumstance, they have consumed a high bandwidth from limited VANETs spectrum (75 MHz). Whereas, V2I communication in urban and highway scenarios, the effectiveness of the communication between smart ground vehicles and roadside infrastructures mostly depends on the capability of roadside infrastructures. Thus, it will be expected from VANETs technologists and scholars to bring out pretty solutions for these types of constraints incorporate with the existing ones.

In this paper, we have evaluated the performance of the converged novel architecture with its forwarding schemes/algorithms in highway scenario (Estifanos, 2018) through integrated and simulated VANETs and wireless access technologies (LTE/4G and UAV System) environment. The contributions of the paper are mentioned as follows. These are:

  • The paper implemented the proposed novel architecture (Estifanos, 2018).

  • It proved that the proposed novel architecture (Estifanos, 2018) is better than the existing ones (Issac & Latiff, 2014), (Vehicular Communication Systems, 2020), (Fan & Yu, 2007), (Saheb et al., 2006) interms of packet delivery, mean delay and throughput on highway scenario.

  • It proved that different wireless technologies like LTE/4G and WAVE can be simulated on the integrated simulation environment.

  • And based on its evaluation results, it recommend a lot of and basic open issues as listed on conclusion section.

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