Outwitted by the Hidden: Unsure Emotions

Outwitted by the Hidden: Unsure Emotions

Kevin Warwick (Coventry University, Coventry, UK) and Huma Shah (Cogent Computing Applied Research Centre, Coventry University, Coventry, UK)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/ijse.2014010106
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Abstract

In this paper the authors consider natural, feigned or absence of emotions in text-based dialogues. The dialogues occurred during interactions between human Judges/Interrogators and hidden entities in practical Turing tests implemented at Bletchley Park in June 2012. The authors focus on the interactions that left the Interrogator unable to say whether they were talking to a human or a machine after five minutes of questioning; the hidden interlocutor received an ‘unsure' classification. In cases where the Judge has provided post-event feedback the authors present their rationale from three viva voce one-to-one Turing tests. The authors find that emoticons and other visual devices used to express feelings in text-based interaction were missing in the conversations between the Interrogators and hidden interlocutors.
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Introduction

These days it is not always easy to say whether you are interacting with a male or a female, an adult or a teenager, indeed even a human or machine based solely on text-based interaction (Warwick & Shah, 2014). Being unsure about what or whom you are engaging can have unpleasant consequences, such as a misunderstanding at best, or at worst, risk of cybercrime (Shah & Warwick, 2012). In the Turing test experiments carried out by the authors the Interrogators were allowed to use an ‘unsure’ classification, because control pairs (2machines; 2humans) were embedded among the machine-human pairs (Shah, et al, 2014; 2012), if a judge really could not say whether they had been chatting to a human or a machine (Warwick, 2012). In this paper we present Interrogator-hidden interlocutor questions-answers that occurred during practical Turing tests at Bletchley Park in 2012 (see Warwick et al., 2013, Warwick and Shah 2013; Warwick and Shah, 2014; Warwick and Shah, forthcoming). We examine whether there was any emotional content in the utterances from those tests (see Tables 1, 2 and 3), that might have distinguished the artificial from the natural and revealed the human from the machine. The paper includes post-event feedback from interrogators in three viva voce (Shah, 2013; Shah, 2011) one-to-one Turing tests (see Figure 1). These three human Judge/Interrogators were not able to say whether they had been conversing with a human or a machine, after five minutes of interaction with a hidden entity. The hidden interlocutor received an ‘unsure’ classification from the Judge.

Table 1.
Judge J18 viva voce in Session 1, Round 4 entity H28
       [11:06:46] Local: Hi, how#s it going?
       [11:07:00] Remote: I'm good, how are you?
       [11:07:20] Local: Fine thanks. I'm from Canada -- have you ever been there?
       [11:07:57] Remote: I've never been, I would love to go, how does it compare to America?
       [11:08:55] Local: Well, they say a Canadian is much like an American -- after you take away his gun and give him free health insurance.
       [11:09:33] Remote: Are the hamburgers good?
       [11:10:15] Local: They're ok -- the same as everywhere I suppose. Where are you from?
       [11:10:28] Remote: I'm from England, do you like it here?
       [11:11:04] Local: Yes, very much. I love all the history. You have so many famous dead people here...

Note: Actual remote hidden entity: male, native English 25-44

Judge, J18, also male, native English, 45-64 with previous experience of chatting with a chatbot – IKEA’s Anna

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