Prevention of Terrorism Attacks by Identifying Terrorist Activities

Prevention of Terrorism Attacks by Identifying Terrorist Activities

Sapto Priyanto (University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia), Mohammad Dermawan (University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia) and Arthur Runturambi (University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 9
DOI: 10.4018/IJSST.2020010104


Terrorism causes material and non-material losses for affected victims of that attack. Victims of terrorist attacks are not only immediate victims, but also indirect victims. Terrorist attacks can be prevented if terrorist activities are identified in advance. This research differs from previous studies because it identifies terrorist activities before the attack. People's attention to safety in their environment can also play a role in anticipating terrorist attacks. Based on chronology with a chronological analysis, it is possible to know that the perpetrators conducted a survey on the target of the attack. In conducting surveys, the perpetrators will be disguised, so to look ordinary, and exploit the negligence of officers. Acts of terrorism can be prevented by raising security concerns about suspicious activities terrorists conducted before the attack, and by keeping the pace and addressing terrorism issues at both national and international levels.
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Based on data from the University of Maryland, Ginkel (2015) explained the phenomenon of the world terrorism from the 1970s to 2010 shows that, after 1995, terrorism action tended to increase and become more aggressive until 2010. This terrorism action consists in transnational crimes, as the following examples show: In 1988, the bombing of the Lockerbie/Pan Nam Flight 103; in 1993, in America, an attack that caused partial damage of the World Trade Centre; in 1995, in Japan, a terrorist attack with sarin gas; in 1995, in America, the bombing of Oklahoma City; in 1998, in Africa, the bombing of the American embassy in Nairobi and Dar es Salam; on 11th September 2001, in New York, the bombing in the World Trade Centre and Pentagon (Devetak, Burke, & George, 2012).

The event of 11th September 2001 by Al-Qaeda terrorist group instantly destroyed the building and 2.996 victims (Angerer, 2018). In addition to instantly killing the wider community, the event also affected economic activities, such as the New York Stock Exchange. Indeed, on the first day after the attack, the market fell 7.1%, or 684 points, and New York's economy lost 143,000 jobs (Angerer, 2018). The heaviest losses were in finance and air transport, which accounted for 60%, and the estimated damage to the World Trade Centre was $60 billion (Angerer, 2018). The attack on and post-September 11th brought a significant change in the United States' conception of the threat by Al Qaeda and its extremists, and in the suitability of actions to be used to respond to these terrorists (Maras, 2011). After the attack of 11 September, the United States called for the Global War on Terrorism, and have been assessed as successful in facing the problem of international terrorism. Various countries also began to consider the issue of terrorism. Then, after September 11th, many sets of terror actions occurred in various countries; one of these was Indonesia.

In 2000, Indonesia suffered several acts of terrorism, including the following: (1) on August 1, 2000, bombings against the Filipino ambassador to Indonesia, Mr. Leonides T. Caday, in Menteng, central Jakarta; (2) on August 27, 2000, a bombing to the embassy of Malaysia in Kuningan, Jakarta; (3) on September 13, 2000, a bombing of Jakarta’s stock exchange; (4) on December 24, 2000, Christmas Eve bombings in some churches in several areas (Sinaga, Prayitno, & Montratama, 2018). Terrorism events in Indonesia are not limited to the year 2000, but have occurred until today. Among The most significant cases of terrorism since the impact in Indonesia were: the bomb in Bali on October 12, 2002; the bomb to the JW Marriot, Jakarta, on August 5, 2003; the bomb to the Australian embassy, in 2004; the bombing in Bali, on October 1, 2005 (Sarwono, 2012). The first bombing in Bali (October 12, 2002) strengthened international pressure on the Megawati government in changing and responding quickly to security policy, especially for terrorism. One of the many important concerns this attack created consisted in its effect on the Indonesian economy. Bali accounts for approximately 40% of the Indonesian income from tourism; the number of tourists to Indonesia declined due to the declining security reputation of Indonesia, especially in Bali (Sherlock, 2002).

At the beginning of January 2016, Sunakim (a former convict for terrorism) and other terrorists conducted armed attacks and bombings around Jl. MH Thamrin Central Jakarta. In this attack, 8 people died, including 1 foreigner, and 26 were injured (Widhana, 2019). In 2019, another terrorist attack occurred in Solo Central Java, where perpetrators aimed to commit suicide bombing to hit the police who were in charge of the Eid safety deposit post in Kartasura, the gashing of police officers in East Java's Wonokromo, a stabbing to the Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs, Wiranto, and the suicide bombing in Mapolresta city of Medan by masquerading as online Ojek (Malik, 2019).

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