Rice Straw Extracted Cellulose Biocompatible Nanofiber

Rice Straw Extracted Cellulose Biocompatible Nanofiber

Matoore Lamani (Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran)
DOI: 10.4018/IJCCE.2017070101

Abstract

This article focuses on the electrospinning of nanofibers from rice straw as a renewable, cheap natural resource. To facilitate the formation of cellulose nanofiber, PVA was utilized as a secondary plasticizing polymer. The polymer solution contained 75% w/w cellulose and 25% w/w PVA using water/formic acid solvent resulting in 8% w/w solid content was successfully prepared as spinning solution. According to SEM images, temperature and voltage have significant impact in producing continuous cellulose nanofibers without beads. A microscopic observation reveals the formation of nanofiber with an average diameter of 177 ± 25 nm. This narrow diameter distribution is a direct outcome of temperature, voltage, volumetric flow rate and tip to collector distance adjustment respectively on 60, 25 kv, 1 µl/hr and 10 cm. The biocompatibility tests using human skin fibroblast cell culture demonstrate the nontoxicity of cellulose nanofiber scaffold compared to a control sample.
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1. Introduction

Cellulose with an approximate annual natural production of 1.5 ×10 12 tons is the most abundant biopolymer in the world. Cellulose is mainly accessible in lingo cellulosic materials such as wheat, rice, maize and soybeans. In the last 50 years, a great deal of studies has been carried out to use straw as an cellulosic by-product from crop production (Luo & Zhang, 2011; Wu et al., 2010). Rice straw with annual production of 731 million ton is the largest cereal crop in the world. It represents around 45% of the volume in rice production, as the largest quantity of crop residue. In terms of total production, rice is the third most important grain crop in the world behind wheat and corn (Binod et al., 2010; Ranjan & Moholkar, 2011). Rice straw contain about (32-47)% cellulose, (19-27)% hemi-cellulose and (5-24)% lignin (Karimi, Kheradmandinia, & Taherzadeh, 2006; Lu & Hsieh, 2012). Some of these waste lignocellulosic sources such as pine, vine, bamboo linen, jute, hemp, ramie, abaka, sisal, bagase, wheat straw rice husk and straw have diverse cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and wax content. These extracted cellulose fiber has been proposed to use in energy and fuel (Gomez et al., Mabee, McFarlane, & Saddler, 2011; Yousef, 2012), chemical materials (Conde et al., 2011; Dhillon et al., 2011), construction and biocomposites (Jarabo et al., 2012; Nourbakhsh & Ashori, 2010; Sahoo, Misra, & Mohanty, 2011).

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