Secure and Effective Key Management Using Secret Sharing Schemes in Cloud Computing

Secure and Effective Key Management Using Secret Sharing Schemes in Cloud Computing

Shahin Fatima (Integral University, India) and Shish Ahmad (Integral University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/IJeC.2020010101

Abstract

Security is a crucial problem in Cloud computing. Storing and accessing the data in the Cloud is very popular nowadays but the security of data is still lagging behind. Secret sharing schemes are widely used to improve the security of data. In this article, a threshold secret sharing scheme using Newton divided difference interpolating polynomial (TSSNIP) is proposed in a distributed Cloud environment to enhance security of keys used for encryption. The proposed method uses a Newton divided difference interpolating polynomial for key splitting and key reconstruction. A threshold value is used to reconstruct the shares in secret sharing schemes. The proposed work made use of dynamic and random threshold generation method to ensure security of key. The experimental output shows reduced execution time, better security, efficiency, and robustness in the proposed scheme. Furthermore, the proposed scheme also outperformed other secret sharing schemes.
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System Design

This section gives the detail of various Secret-Sharing Scheme’s.

Secret Sharing Scheme

Adi-Shamir & George-Blakeley (Shamir, 1979; Blakely, 1979) developed Secret-Sharing Scheme’s. The Shamir- Secret-sharing schemes makes use of polynomial interpolation. Shamir (k, n) threshold scheme states that ‘k’-points are required to create a polynomial of [k-1] degree. In this scheme Lagrange’ Interpolating polynomial is used. The Secret is partitioned into several shares(n) and minimum k threshold value is required to re-assemble the original secret data. Each user will have a share of secret. To re assemble the secret data, a sufficient number of shares should be collected. This sufficient number of shares are determined by threshold value k. If users can have k number of shares, they can re-assemble the secret data. The Secret-Sharing Schemes (SSS) can also be used to secure the data in ‘multi-clouds’ (Muhil et al., 2015). The encrypted data is stored on multiple clouds.

Definition

The given method is called ‘k-n’ threshold scheme. The algorithm partitions the data into n number of shares share1, share2, -----, share n such that:

  • 1.

    Collecting k pieces of share will retrieve the original data;

  • 2.

    Collecting k-1 or lesser pieces of share will not be sufficient to re-assemble the original data;

  • 3.

    Collecting k=n pieces of share will retrieve the original data.

The aim of Shamir-SSS is to define that (k) points are necessary to describe a polynomial of degree k-1 i.e., a line is constructed using 2 points and a parabola is constructed using 3 points.

The data is divided into shares by defining polynomial of appropriate degree. The data/secret (S) is divided into ‘n’ number of shares. ‘P’ is the size of finite field ‘F’ and it is a prime number. ‘k-1’ positive integers are chosen randomly as a1, -----, ak-1, where ‘ai’< ‘P’:

P(y)= a0+a1y1+a2y2+-------+ak-1yk-1(1)

In which [a 0 =secret ‘S’], and a0 is the constant term.

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