Secure Modified Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) Routing Protocol

Secure Modified Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) Routing Protocol

Geetanjali Rathee (Jaypee University of Information Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Waknaghat, India) and Hemraj Saini (Jaypee University of Information Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Waknaghat, India)
DOI: 10.4018/IJMCMC.2017010101

Abstract

In the context of wireless technology, a secure communication is requisite for stopping the unauthorized access to the network services. This manuscripts aim is to detect and eliminate the malicious nodes involved during routing path formation in mesh environments by doing some amendments in basic AODV routing phenomenon. The proposed mechanism is further merged with previously proposed secure authentication and signature routing (SASR) protocol to address the security threats such as grey hole, black hole attacks and to recover the network metrics in terms of packet loss ratio, packet delivery ratio, computational time and network throughput. Further, the approach is simulated by computing the network throughput in both the scenarios i.e. with the involvement of malicious nodes and without involvement of malicious nodes. Moreover, we have validated the network metrics of proposed mechanism against conventional approaches.
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Introduction

As Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) (Khan & Pathan, 2013; Rathee & Saini,2016) has gradually becoming a prevailing replacement technology with reasonable cost effective emulsion for last mile connectivity to the community and family networking, it is domineering to enterprise a safe and proficient communication protocol. In WMN, security can be easily conceded due to its distributed, broadcasting and dynamic nature. Therefore, an ornate authentication mechanism (Lai et al., 2016; Rathee & Saini, 2016; Martins et al., 2016; Rathee & Saini,2016) and a secure routing (Rathee & Saini, 2015; Babbitt et al., 2016; Boushaha et al., 2016; Rathee & Saini et al., 2016) protocol should be indispensable to assure that only trusted nodes have access to various amenities with efficient network performance. Various researchers/scientists have proposed several secure routing mechanisms by introducing numerous cryptographic and trust based schemes. SAODV (Lu et al., 2009) is a protected form of AODV protocol which uses digital signatures and hash chains to implement the security inside the network. In this scheme, hash chains are used to protect the hop counts in the routing packet field while digital signature secures the routing messages. The originating node recruits the route-finding process by engendering Time-To-Live (TTL) value and seed the number with determined hop count. Although SAODV is robust against alteration of sequence number attacks, hop count and prevents the hop count filed in routing messages from reducing, however, it does not offer hop by hop authentication and attacker may still increase the hop count to distress the routing decision of the node. Moreover, SAODV fortifies the routing messages but does not assure the integrity and authentication of the packets coming from a node. Further, the author have proposed an AODV-CGA (Asherson & Hutchison,2006) protocol which is an addition of AODV routing mechanism designed to forward the data packets to the adjoining one in the incidence of numerous access points in WMN. The basic idea of AODV-CGA is connection of altered access points under a conjoint gateway. The author claims that the AODV-CGA is translucent to the nodes. The authors have suggested an SEAODV (Li et al., 2010) routing protocol which is based on Pre-Distribution Keys (PDK) to compute the secret pairwise transient key PTK i.e. RREP (Route Reply) for authenticating the unicast messages and Group Transient Key (GTK) to validate the broadcast messages i.e. RREQ (Route Request). The limitation of this protocol is that it is vulnerable against computation and communication overhead. RAOLSR (Saavedra et al., 2014), another secure routing mechanism implemented a combination of elliptic curve digital signature and identity based encryption algorithms to secure the messages in link state routing and last but not least (Sbeiti et al.,2014) have proposed a combination of digital signature with light weight authentication tree and symmetric block ciphers to secure the routing messages. Although researchers have proposed several cryptographic routing schemes, however, none of these protocols cannot be well adopted in WMN environment because of their high computational and communication overhead. Later researchers have proposed various trust based routing mechanisms to overcome the mentioned limitations i.e. the authors have proposed a mesh routing algorithm known as HOVER (Mir et al., 2008) which is based upon basic AODV routing protocol. The researcher gave a routing algorithm having optimal link selection and quality estimation capabilities.

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