The Use of Spatial Analysis Approaches for Smart Decision Making of Subterranean Water

The Use of Spatial Analysis Approaches for Smart Decision Making of Subterranean Water

Panagiotis Kalaitzis (University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece), Dimitris Kavroudakis (University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece) and Nikolaos A. Soulakellis (Department of Geography, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/IJAGR.2019100104

Abstract

Water is one of life's and nature's most dominant elements, with its presence influencing and controlling the climatic, geological, and biological conditions of an area. Continuous monitoring of subterranean water with the aim of its optimal management has become necessary nowadays. The aspiration of this research is, that the development of “smart” methods for this purpose, will lead to the optimization of the quality of life of the inhabitants of a region, always respecting the environment. The use of geoinformatics methods can contribute to the development of models according to which a network for the logging and control of boreholes and subterranean water will be created, which in turn will lead to smart and direct decision-making concerning their management. In this research, an effort is made to show the contribution of spatial analysis to the design and management of the subterranean water of an area, with the vision of a smart city being the ultimate goal.
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Introduction

Water is a vital natural resource for human livelihood and the entire ecosystem including agriculture and it is also an important basic resource for the sustainable economic and societal development globally and regionally. (Li et al., 2017). The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Kriging spatial interpolation method for the estimation of a surface of underground aquifer of the drainage basin of the river Tsiknias. Using data from borehole water level depths, an interpolation method was used (ordinary kriging) to approximate the water level of the underground aquifer. The aim of this work is to assess the depth of subterranean water across the surface of the drainage basin so it would be easy and fast to use that information and make smart decisions, always with respect to the environment. Water level measurements are used as data for the development of an interpolation model that will result in the creation of subterranean water level surfaces, as a first step. In order to have real-time and accurate data, a network of sensors has been planned that is going to automate the procedure. This network will, at first, consist of a set of sensors that will measure, in real-time, the water level in existing boreholes and will be linked to a database that will make decisions to avoid excessive water pumping. These surfaces will play a vital role in making decisions in search of optimal locations, always in conjunction with broader studies of the area in question. Wireless embedded network systems generally consist of the following components: a series of probe/sensor nodes, a series of infrastructure nodes, an end node for data gathering and transfer and a data logger or PC. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology, and research on the development of such systems is receiving increasing attention around the world (Benini et al., 2006). The focus is on advancing the current technology in relation to network performance, reliability, security, efficient data propagation strategies, and network applicability (Akyildiz et al., 2002; Chatzigiannakis et al., 2008; Powell et al., 2007). The quantity of usable ground water in any given area is closely linked to the quality of the water available for various uses. The finite nature of this resource has led to its exploitation, its abuse as a dumping ground for unwanted waste materials, and its excessive mining (Nielsen 2006). It is more than necessary that there is systematic monitoring of subterranean water and protection from natural (seasonal passage) and human (pumping of subterranean water) processes.

The creation of such estimation surfaces enables easier and continuous monitoring of ground water, which in turn helps to maintain its volume and quality. The goals are to manage surface runoff and to protect the quality of water entering rivers, streams, and the ground water flow system. However, information is needed regarding the configuration of the water table to help determine the appropriate use of these diversion methods to meet regulatory requirements and to minimize the effect on ground water quality and ground water levels (Snyder, 2008).

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