A Comparative Analysis of the Human Resource Development Systems of Turkey and Uganda

A Comparative Analysis of the Human Resource Development Systems of Turkey and Uganda

Ssali Muhammadi Bisaso (Islamic University in Uganda, Uganda & Hacettepe University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9814-7.ch056
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Abstract

In this chapter, the Human Resource Development systems of Turkey and Uganda are examined. A document survey and library search technique were used to explore the status-quo regarding Human Resource Development processes in the two countries with focus on legal structures as well as structural set ups pertaining the field in question. The major findings in relation to the comparison made indicate that Turkey as a developing country has a much better Human Resource Management and development set up compared to Uganda as a less developed country. This is highlighted by the fact that in Turkey entry into any Human Resource professional field involves a series of examination levels to the effect of KPSS, KPDS, and ALES while in Uganda such entry would only require interviews. Meanwhile, Turkey's human resource development program features a streamlined policy on foreign based Human Resources while Uganda, though it has some effort in place, is still far from the required standard in this respect. One glaring similarity though is that in both countries the Human Resource Development unit depends on other units in the ministry. It is therefore opined that there are a lot of learning points in the Human Resource Development process in Turkey for a less developed country like Uganda.
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Introduction

Defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goals (Armstrong, 2008), Human Resource Management is as old as mankind. Originally known as personnel management, the term personnel management was changed to Human Resource Management in the 1970s, and is widely used today. This development is in line with the changes on an international level, which recognize human resource as a major aspect in an organization (Bush & Middlewood, 2005). Nevertheless, there are still groups that refer to Human Resource Management as Personnel Management. Human Resource Management is thus a service orientation and a willingness to ensure that the human element in the organization is catered for (Bush et al, 2005). In general, Human Resource Management refers to the process of managing diverse people talent to achieve a common goal.

Human Resource Development meanwhile is a process aimed at producing employees who are well informed, skillful and understand their goals as well as the organization’s goals. In addition, Human Resource Development is designed to help employees contribute positively to the organization through excellent and satisfactory work performance (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2006: 511). Activities in Human Resource Development include conducting orientations to new employees, identifying, designing and carrying out training programs to increase employees’ skills and abilities. It is also aimed at producing a culture that appreciates and rewards continuous learning efforts (Monahan & Hengst, 1982). Thus, this function involves organizational and individual learning (systematically developing the organization as a learning organization), providing employees with learning opportunities to develop their capacities, and, Career management (planning and developing the careers of people with potential) (Armstrong, 2008).

Therefore it is not by any means an accident that every part of the world strives to realize a well laid out Human resource program in order to maximize on the output of organizations and institutions alike. Concern for people means attracting, developing, and motivating the right employees and helping them to develop an appropriate culture and climate (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2006). It also implies an ethical approach to their management i.e. respect for the individual, mutual respect, procedural fairness, and transparency. The importance of people at work is highlighted by a simple Chinese proverb thus “if you want one year of prosperity, grow grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow trees. If you want one hundred years of prosperity, grow people.”

Hence today the human factor in education is the most important resource because the effective utilization of other resources depends on the quality and management of employees. People are the future of every school organization. People create added value. It is people at various levels who create visions, define values and missions, set goals, develop strategic plans in accordance with an organization’s underpinning values. That is why Jones (1994; cited by Armstrong, 2008) contends that the single most important factor for the success of any organization is capability and performance of the people with it.

Turkey and Uganda are no exception to this sweeping volcano as both countries have set up various apparatuses to streamline the process of managing the human resources. In Uganda the key units include the public service commission, education service commission, welfare committee as well as the human resource division. In Turkey meanwhile a number of units in the National ministry of education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı-MEB) are in line with management and development of human resource. The major ones include: the general directorate of human resources (İnsan Kaynakları Genel Müdürlüğü), general directorate of teacher training and development (Öğretmen Yetiştirme ve Geliştirme Genel Müdürlüğü), general directorate of support services (Destek Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü), strategic development presidency (Strateji Geliştirme Başkanlığı), supervision, guidance and counseling unit (Rehberlik ve Denetim Başkanlığı) and the general directorate of European union and foreign relations (Avrupa Birliği ve Dış İlişkiler Genel Müdürlüğü).

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