A Detailed Study on Security Concerns of VANET and Cognitive Radio VANETs

A Detailed Study on Security Concerns of VANET and Cognitive Radio VANETs

M. Manikandakumar (Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India), Sri Subarnaa D. K. (Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India) and Monica Grace R. (Thiagarajar College of Engineering, India)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5348-0.ch031
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Wireless ad hoc networks are dynamic networks in which nodes can move freely in the network. A new type of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) that allows smart transport system to provide road security and reduces traffic jams through automobile-to-automobile and automobile-to-roadside communication. In this, vehicles rely on the integrity of received data for deciding when to present alerts to drivers. Because of wireless network the VANET messages are vulnerable to many attacks and the security concerns are also major issues. So, with respect to these methods, this article will discuss the Denial of Service (DoS) attack, masquerading, and their vulnerabilities. Also, it classifies the securities and their prevention mechanisms in overcoming these security issues in VANET and Cognitive Radio VANET perspectives.
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On Board Unit (OBU)

This OBU is the central processing power where the vehicular node is installed in vehicle. This unit can contain a variety of devices that are used for communication and information processing like:

  • A processor that are processing the application to obtain the communication protocols.

  • A wireless transceiver is used to transmit and receive data among itself, other vehicles and with road side units.

  • A GPS is used here for viewing the vehicles location.

  • A set of sensors is used to measure various parameters which can then be processed in a distributed network. Special sensors can also be used to measure driver’s mental status.

  • Network interfaces used for VANET are IEEE 802.11p card and other networks like Bluetooth and infrared for communication.

Mode of Operation

Once the data has been entered, the vehicle gets activated for automatic system by comparing the GPS signal and information from positioning sensors with the motor network information, the OBU automatically detects whether the vehicle is on a route segment, and determines which segments are used. Based on the route and vehicle data that has been saved automatically, OBU can calculate the toll charges, saves this information, and transmit it through radio signal (GSM) to the computing center.

Application Unit (AU)

The application layer of the network is intended to provide a safety measures and non-safety applications. AU is a device with input output interfaces like monitor, keypad, headphone jack, USB port etc (Anandakumar, Umamaheswari, & Arulmurugan, 2018). The AU is connected by either wired connection or wirelessly connected to OBU.

Road Side Unit (RSU)

This RSU is fixed device located on road side that helps in maintaining the network. It is also equipped with network interfaces like IEEE 802.11p. IEEE 802.11p is a standard to add wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE), a vehicular communication system. This RSU requires a support Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications. This RSU includes data exchange between high-speed vehicles and the vehicles on the roadside infrastructure, so it is called as V2X communication. The RSU also facilitates the routing mechanism. The RSU receives the information and provide a warning message to the drivers about the accidents occurred in some area.

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