ACO-Based Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

ACO-Based Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Renu Jangra (Kurukshetra University, India), Ramesh Kait (Kurukshetra University, India) and Sarvesh Kumar (Poornima University, Jaipur, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2803-7.ch015
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Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer great expertise that club the sensing, execution, communication, and network technology along with microelectronics and micro-mechanical devices together to study the environment. It is a new concept and a consequence of few steps in the communication field. If the original prospect of this new network works according to the planned concept, it will recover the examining and control systems used these days in the environment for consumer, medical, industries, and military sectors. The wireless technology gives the advantage of decrease in cost that cabling operation has in recent systems and also makes it possible to perform measurements in unreachable places. Many applications can work on the concept of this technology.
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Batteries are used to generate current in the nodes. But, the batteries are discharge in fast manners which humiliate the network lifetime. Repeatedly usage of battery power corrupts the normal working of the whole network. The taxonomy of routing protocols in WSN is based on (a) style of functioning of nodes (b) the way of nodes participated in the network (c) the network structure. Therefore, the routing protocol is separated into hierarchical, data centric and location based on the foundation of the network structure. The energy efficient routing is based on the hierarchical structure. Many more algorithms also come under this group. Till now, there are so many power efficient algorithms are executed by the researchers. These are LEACH, PEGASIS, TEEN, APTEEN, HPAR etc to get well from the energy issue. LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive

Clustering Hierarchy) is one of them. The base of routing protocols is different format such as clustering, chaining, cost based etc. The immense quantity of nodes present in wireless sensor network is sometimes tricky to handle. So, the best way is to combine some nodes and make a cluster. Making a cluster is a technique called clustering; which puts a limit on the energy usage by the sensor nodes. The communication and management of nodes in the cluster is handled with the aid of the cluster head. The choice of cluster head among cluster nodes is done by the probability rule which is based on ACO. The cluster nodes send data to the cluster head which further send related information to the base station. ACO-DEEC (Ant Colony Optimization based Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering protocol) calculates the probability rule to

select the cluster head that based on the parameters: distance and power of the nodes. This algorithm improves the energy usage, number of packets sent to the base station, dead nodes when evaluated with the existing protocol DEEC.

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