Advanced Water Treatment Systems and Their Applications

Advanced Water Treatment Systems and Their Applications

Tauseef Ahmad Rangreez (National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India), Rizwana Mobin (Government College for Women, Cluster University Srinagar, India), Hamida-Tun-Nisa Chisti (National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India), Rafia Bashir (National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India) and Tabassum Ara (National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5754-8.ch001
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The chapter gives an idea about water as a life-sustaining medium and the sources of its pollution along with the deteriorating effects of over burdening of natural resources and the effect of various heavy metal ions discharged into the water bodies on human health and wellbeing. Several human diseases and disorders that are caused due to intake of water polluted by toxic heavy metal ions are also listed. The need and urgency in determination and removal of heavy metal ions from the water sources in order to release load on aquifers by making water safe for reuse is emphasized. The procedure and advantages of composite cation-exchangers along with the work carried out in the field to develop various lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury selective cation-exchangers are also included. The utility of organic-inorganic composite material for the detection of heavy metals, which render portable water unsafe for use and pose a threat to the wellbeing of man, is also discussed.
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4. Water Pollution Sources

The wastewater discharge, runoff from urban and rural areas, the increased use of chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides and surfactants), animal matter into surface and ground waters, municipal emissions into water bodies constitute the main pollution sources (Fawell & Nieuwenhuijsen, 2003; Mozaz, Alda, & Barcelo, 2004). The water bodies are constantly under pressure due to the growing demand for food and energy (Godfray, 2010). The sources of water pollution are generally divided into two types:

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