An Insight Into Openstack

An Insight Into Openstack

Srinivasa K. G. (CBP Government Engineering College, India) and Vikram Santhosh (M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2785-5.ch012
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OpenStack is a cloud operating system that controls large pools of compute, storage, and networking resources throughout a data center. All of the above components are managed through a dashboard which gives administrators control while empowering their users to provision resources through a web interface. OpenStack lets users deploy virtual machines and other instances which handle different tasks for managing a cloud environment on the fly. It makes horizontal scaling easy, which means that tasks which benefit from running concurrently can easily serve more or less users on the fly by just spinning up more instances.
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1.0 Indroduction To Cloud Computing

1.1 Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a generic term for any solution that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing enables organizations to consume compute resources as a utility. Cloud computing services are broadly divided into three categories:

  • Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS): Offers virtual server instances and storage for third party clients as well as APIs for the clients to migrate their workloads onto a VM.

  • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): Offer suitable environment for end-users to develop, run and manage their hosted cloud or web applications without much of effort. Example includes Google App Engine.

  • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Is a distribution model that delivers software applications over the Internet On-Demand and is typically accessed via thin clients using web browsers.

1.2 Type of Cloud Services

  • Private Cloud Model: Private cloud services are meant for internal users. Such a model offers a high degree of versatility and convenience, while at the same time preserving management security and control.

  • Public Cloud Model: In a public cloud model, service providers offer cloud service over the Internet. Public cloud services are commercially provided on-demand. Customers are required to pay only for the bandwidth or storage they consume. Leading public cloud providers include Microsoft Azure, Google Compute Engine, IBM/SoftLayer and Amazon Web Services (AWS)


2.0 Virtualization

A virtual machine (VM) is simply an emulation of a particular computer system, which provides software abstraction of the actual physical hardware. VM configuration changes for every computer architecture of a physical machine and the VM implementation may involve specialized hardware, software or a combination of both.

2.1 Hypervisors

Figure 1.

Types of Hypervisors

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VMs are run and managed by a Hypervisor (Figure 1) or Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM), which is basically a piece of computer software that sits atop of the bare metal, or OS. In case of Type-1 hypervisors, VMMs run directly on the host's bare metal to control and manage the hardware and guest OS. Modern equivalents include Oracle VM Server for x86, Oracle VM Server for SPARC, VMware ESX/ESXi, the Citrix XenServer and Microsoft Hyper-V 2008/2012.

Where as in Type-2 hypervisors, hosted hypervisors run on a conventional OS just as other computer programs do. Workstations, VirtualBox and VMWare are the examples of hosted hypervisors.

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