Applications of the Indigenous and Modern Career Counselling in Education

Applications of the Indigenous and Modern Career Counselling in Education

James N. Oigara (Canisius College, USA) and Godrick E. Lyimo (Agape Lutheran Junior Seminary, Tanzania)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8963-2.ch022
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Abstract

The career development field is continually growing and changing to reflect the current career realities of individuals, changes in society, and in the world of work. The main aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between modern and indigenous career counselling. The relatively under-researched indigenous career counselling approach can be blended with modern career counselling to help students handle their challenges specifically related to career choice. This strategy provides an interpretive tool trying to create a third space or bridging areas between the indigenous and modern career counselling approaches within the Tanzanian context. The study revealed that some school counsellors employ both indigenous and modern counselling to address career challenges among the secondary school students. The blending of indigenous and modern career counselling creates a balanced guidance and counselling service which relates students to the careers that are relevant to their context which promotes the development of community-based careers.
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Background

There are many career theories that may be helpful in providing a framework for career counselling. Over the past hundred years, a range of theories has underpinned, and continues to inform, the practice of career counselors and current understandings of career counselling. See for instance, Brown and Brooks (1991), Herr and Cramer (1996), and Patton & McMahon (1999). Patton and McMahon highlight the importance of society and the environment along with individual differences such as gender, values, sexual orientation, ability, disability, interests, skills, age, world-of-work knowledge, physical attributes, aptitudes, ethnicity, self-concept, personality, beliefs, and health (p. 157). They discuss the interaction of the individual with the social system including educational institutions, peers, family, media, community groups, and the workplace (p. 159). These interact with the environmental social system that includes geographical location, political decisions, historical trends, globalization, socio-economic status, and the employment market (p. 160).

Patton and McMahon’s (1999) ideas provide one example of a career framework that can be used to explain the career development process to students, as well as explaining the place of various career theories (i.e. trait and factor, developmental, social learning, etc.) and their relationships to each other. Counsellors are encouraged to learn about other career frameworks/ theories and to utilize the ideas that are most relevant to their own cultures. Below we explain the modern career counselling and indigenous career counselling theories.

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