Artificial Intelligence and Literacy Development in K–12 Schools

Artificial Intelligence and Literacy Development in K–12 Schools

Damian Maher, Kirsty Young
DOI: 10.4018/979-8-3693-0205-7.ch004
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The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming widespread in educational settings including schools. It has the potential to support teaching and learning across all subjects. The focus of the chapter is to explore how it can be used to support literacy development. In understanding use by teachers, the TPACK model is investigated. This is then followed by a focus on the teacher's role and the importance of teacher training. The focus then moves to AI and literacies. As part of this section, digital story writing and AI is investigated as well as special and inclusive education. This section concludes with a focus on assessment and feedback. The ethical use of AI is an important consideration and is an area that is currently engaging researchers and educators. This aspect is investigated. To conclude the chapter, areas of future research are discussed.
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Understanding Ai Using The Tpack Model

The TPACK framework, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), recognizes that successful technology integration in education requires the fusion of the three core components: TK, PK, and CK. TK refers to the understanding of various technologies and their functions and how these can be effectively utilised. PK involves the ability to employ effective teaching strategies and methods to engage students and promote learning. CK represents a teacher’s deep knowledge of the subject matter. The TPACK model is widely used to identify “how teachers can incorporate technologies into their pedagogical methods and content knowledge, and conceptualizes their capacity and knowledge that is needed to integrate relevant technologies in AI literacy education” (Ng et al., 2021, p. 6).

In the context of AI integration, teachers play a crucial role as facilitators, guiding students to leverage AI tools for enhanced learning experiences. To effectively fill this role, teachers need to develop a solid foundation in all three components of TPACK. Most importantly, teachers must possess the TK necessary to navigate AI systems, understand their capabilities, and identify appropriate tools and resources. Familiarity with AI technologies empowers teachers to make informed decisions regarding implementation in the classroom.

PK comes into play as teachers explore innovative ways to incorporate AI into their instructional practices. Teachers must determine how to use AI tools to engage students, promote critical thinking, and foster collaboration. Those with strong PK can design activities that harness the power of AI to individualise instruction and cater to diverse learning styles and needs. By understanding their students’ strengths and weaknesses, teachers can guide students to use AI effectively and ethically (Celik, 2023).

Key Terms in this Chapter

TPACK: This framework is used to understand teachers’ practice and includes technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and content knowledge (CK).

Literacy: This involves students listening, reading, viewing, speaking, and writing; creating oral, print, visual, and digital texts; and using and modifying language for different purposes in a range of contexts.

Peer Assessment: This is a structured process for students to critique and provide feedback to each other against success criteria related to a learning goal.

Artificial Intelligence (AI): This aspect of computing is linked to software that is able to engage in human-like thought processes including learning, reasoning, and self-correction.

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