Aviation Industry and Environment Crisis: A Perspective of Impacts on the Human, Urban and Natural Environments

Aviation Industry and Environment Crisis: A Perspective of Impacts on the Human, Urban and Natural Environments

Mostafa Jafari (Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO), Iran)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-887-3.ch001
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Abstract

This chapter was prepared based upon an invitation made by the Conference organizers, to be presented by the author as opening keynote speaker to highlight “Aviation Industry and Environment Crisis” and focus on the impacts on the human, urban and natural environments. The importance and various dimensions of the issue have been reported by the IPCC following a request from the ICAO and the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1999.
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Aviation: Development And Improvement

The oldest testimonies about man's efforts to learn how to fly dates from the time of ancient civilizations, accordingly, aviation development leads to engine burning, and when aircraft engines burn fuel, they produce emissions that are similar to other emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion. However, aircraft emissions are unusual in that a significant proportion is emitted at altitude. These emissions give rise to important environmental concerns regarding their global impact and their effect on local air quality.

Development

The results show that due to the high growth rates of international transport expected under the chosen scenario, by 2050 the share of unabated emissions from international aviation and shipping in total greenhouse gas emissions may increase significantly from 0.8% to 2.1% for international aviation (excluding non-CO2 impacts on global warming) and from 1.0% to 1.5% for international shipping. Although these shares may still seem rather modest, compared to total global allowable emissions in 2050 in a 450 ppm stabilization scenario, unabated emissions from international aviation may have a 6% share (for CO2 only) and unabated international shipping emissions have a 5% share. Thus, total unregulated bunker emissions account for about 11% of the total global allowable emissions of a 450 ppm scenario (European Commission, 16 May 2007).

Furthermore, the incorporation of the non-CO2 impacts of aviation on climate change into the UNFCCC accounting scheme for GHG emissions could be considered, since aviation is a special case in this respect where the non-CO2 impacts make a significant contribution. The inclusion of the global warming impact of non-CO2 emissions, of which a significant fraction originates from NOx emissions (through ozone formation), would increase the share of international aviation emissions in 2050 from 6% to 17% (European Commission, 16 May 2007).

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