BCI, BNCI, and BMI

BCI, BNCI, and BMI

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6130-1.ch004
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Abstract

Brain Computer Interaction and Interfaces is another emerging technology that is presenting interesting potential for people with disabilities in their interaction with computers and machines in general. Combined with robotic arms, it can lead to prosthetic arms that can be handled though the brain like a natural hand. Apart from that, brain-computer interfaces can be used for a variety of other control operations over computers and machines in general and also for detecting the emotional state of a person. People with disabilities (and not only them) could use them to interact with a range of machines from traditional PCs to smart wheelchairs that will be able not only to accept commands but understand their emotions too. Therefore, this chapter is devoted to presenting recent efforts in the area and discussing issues and challenges that lie ahead in the domain of BCI so that the reader can get an overview of this new exciting technology.
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Bci Applications And Challenges

In a recent roadmap (Future BCNI, 2012) developed by the Future BNCI Project there is extensive reference on the part of BCI and BNCI applications for persons with disabilities. In particular according to Millan et. al. (Millan et al., 2010) the main areas of application of BCI for persons with disabilities are the following:

  • Communication and control where persons with disabilities are using BCI to communicate with other or with an assistive device.

  • Motor rehabilitation and recovery where persons with motor impairments and disabilities use BcI to recover their mobility.

  • Moto substitution where persons with motor impairments can use BCI either to control an assistive device such as a wheelchair or to control other devices that can substitute their need for transport such as tele-presence robots.

  • Mental state monitoring where BCI is used to monitor a person’s state of mind and act accordingly.

  • Entertainment and gaming

  • Hybrid BCI (hBCI) where persons with disability are using BCI in combination with other assistive devices to improve their control.

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